I:  In The Beginning

Section Intro | The Dawn of Time | The Ancient World | 1st - 10th Centuries | 11th - 18th Centuries | 19th Century | Early 20th Century


History Notes and References
circa 19 Billion Years Before Common Era  
  The Source comes into existence. New Gods Secret Files #1 <9.98>. This occurs on a different metaphysical plane, distinct from the ordinary physical universe, and thus (we may presume) able to precede it. The same is necessarily true for all other events preceding the Big Bang, below; such events may well be understood to transcend the ordinary DC universe and/or multiverse. The exact relationship between the Source and God/YHWH/“The Presence” has never been clearly defined.
  Destiny comes into being, to be followed by the rest of the Endless. Sandman #8 <8.89>, #21 <12.90> et seq.; (1st appearance Weird Mystery Tales #1 <7-8.72>). Destiny’s siblings, in order, are Death, Dream, Desire, Destruction, Despair, and Delight (later Delirium). According to Neil Gaiman (introducing the Brief Lives collection), the Endless “aren’t gods. [They] existed before… gods, and will exist after the last god is dead.” Hence their placement here. Note as well that “none of [them] will last longer than this version of the universe”—per Destruction, in Sandman #49 <5.93>.
  God (aka YHWH/“The Presence”/“The Voice”) creates a companion for himself. After a dispute, that companion is cast down to the realm that will later be Hell, becoming known as “The First of the Fallen.” God replaces him by creating the angelic host. 1st appearance Hellblazer #42 <6.91>; origin (distinguishing him from Lucifer) Hellblazer #59 <11.92>, #83 <11.94>. After The First presumably comes “The Word” [Swamp Thing v2 #147 <10.94>, #167 <6.96>], who has been described as the first Archangel, a servant of The Voice “since time began.”
  c. 18 Billion Years BCE  
  The original GodWorld forms (the “First World”). New Gods SF #1
  c. 17 Billion Years BCE  
  Life appears on the GodWorld (the “Second World”), created by the Source. New Gods SF #1, Death of the New Gods #5 <3.08>.
  c. 15 Billion Years BCE  
  The Old Gods evolve on the GodWorld. New Gods SF #1
  c. 13.7 Billion Years BCE  
  The physical Universe explodes into being in the Big Bang. Its early form and substance are guided by God’s chief archangels, Michael and Lucifer. ZHTL* <10.94>. Changed from 15 billion years to conform to the latest scientific evidence, per NASA’s WMAP probe of 2003 (also establishing that the first stars developed within 200 million years). Several time-travelling super-heroes are present to witness this event, per Zero Hour #0 <10.94> [see 2003, aka Year 15]. (Over 100 time-travelling heroes are also present just before this event, per Crisis on Infinite Earths #10 <1.86> [see 1999/Yr11]—by virtue of which “the dawn of time” serves as a cosmic “bottleneck,” the only point of access between the pre-Crisis multiverse and the singular DC Universe that displaces it.) The religious aspect is from Lucifer #26 <7.02>, as confirmed by Death herself. To reconcile this with scientific data (as well as other DC-relevant origin myths, and the DCU’s generally ecumenical approach to religious pantheons), we may speculate that humanity’s later belief in God and Lucifer (et al.) metaphysically “retconned” them back to before the moment of Creation.
  Rebellion in Heaven. Lucifer is cast into Hell. Books of Magic mini-series #1 <1.91>, Hellblazer #59, Lucifer #11 <4.01>, and other sources. See also Milton’s Paradise Lost. Note (re: the First of the Fallen, above), from Gustav Davidson’s Dictionary of Angels: “Lucifer [was] erroneously equated with the fallen angel (Satan) due to a misreading of Isaiah 14:12… The name Lucifer was applied to Satan by St. Jerome.”
  The angel Aztar, rather than being relegated to Hell, is sentenced to serve as the Wrath of God—the Spectre. Spectre v3 #60 <12.97>
  c. 13 Billion BCE  
  The universe’s first sentients develop on the planet Cilia. They later become the Lords of Order. JSA #42 <1.03>. Note that this status (first intelligent life) has previously been claimed for the Maltusians/Oans, below. It is not clear how both assertions can be true; we might speculate that the Cilians were not humanoid, or not embodied at all, or at least never progressed from mere consciousness to actual civilization before transcending into their metaphysical forms. Note also that the source for this claim was later shown to be dishonest. On the other hand, History of the DC Universe <1986> (granted, often only a marginally useful source, title notwithstanding) wrote that “Oa was not the first great power, but it was the first not to be consumed by its own greed.” Date based on the span needed for two full Maha Yuga cycles prior to 4.324 Billion BCE.
  c. 10 Billion BCE  
  Intelligent life arises on the planet Maltus. Secret Origins #23 <2.88>, and other sources. The Maltusians develop a highly advanced civilization.
  c. 6 Billion BCE  
  The leaders of three pantheons of the Old Gods conspire against the Source. The Source is splintered, its darker aspect hurled through “dozens of planes of actuality.” DoNG #5. Date approximate, based on the Source's remark that he/she/it was incapacitated for an eon or so.” An eon is not a precise timespan, but is sometimes used to designate approximately a billion years.
  c. 5 Billion BCE  
  There came a time when the Old Gods died! The GodWave, the blinding death-flash of the GodWorld’s destruction, radiates throughout the physical universe. New Gods SF #1; (New Gods v1 #1 <2-3.71>), and other sources. (History of the DCU suggests this was the battle between the Titans and the Greek gods [and thus much later], but that has been explicitly superseded.) DoNG #5 reveals that this was precipitated by the Source, seeking retribution.
  Cast out during the war, the Old God known as Gog falls “for an eternity” and across planes of reality before crashing, near death, on Earth. JSA v4 #16 <7.08>. Note that this story refers to the Godworld as the “Third World,” not the Second, contra other sources [see 33,000 BCE].
  The Solar System begins to form. New Gods SF #1; also matches available scientific data.
  c. 4.8 Billion BCE  
  From the GodWorld’s remains, two giant molten bodies begin to form Apokolips and New Genesis. New Gods SF #1; (New Gods v1 #1). Note that they remain on a separate physical plane from the prosaic physical universe.
  c. 4.6 Billion BCE  
  The Earth coalesces from cosmic dust. New Gods SF #1 (slightly revised, to match current scientific data). This chart of the Geologic Time Scale may be a helpful reference for some entries below.
  c. 4.5 Billion BCE  
  The demons Abnegezar, Rath, and Ghast reign over the Earth, until banished by the Timeless Ones. JLASF #1 <9.97>; (Justice League of America v1 #10 <3.62>). Dating is approximate; precedes life on Earth.
  A mineral intelligence takes shape on Earth as the elemental Parliament of Stones. ST v2 #168 <7.96> provides the date. Other elemental “parliaments” (of Flames, Waves, and Vapors,) also develop, independently: ST v2 #150 <1.95>. They initially share a group consciousness, but that eventually changes after the appearance of the Parliament of Trees [see 435 Million BCE]. It is interesting to speculate about whether this event may correspond with the arrival of Gog, above, who winds up “buried in a tomb of molten rock.”
  c. 4.324 Billion BCE  

The previous Maha Yuga draws to an end, beginning a long period of relative equilibrium in the universe.

(The Hindu Manvantara cycle of the ebb and flow between Order and Chaos clearly applies to the DC Universe somehow—if not entirely literally—as shown in numerous stories. Briefly, adherents believe in the “Maha Yuga” (“Day of Brahma”), a cycle of 4,320,000 years, beginning with a golden age and ending with Pralaya, or the triumph of Chaos. It has four segments in a ratio of 4:3:2:1 (the Satya, Treta, Dwapara, and Kali Yugas), the last and smallest phase lasting 432,000 years, after which comes a “Night of Brahma,” 1,000 times as long as the day; then the cycle repeats.)

Dr. Fate mini-series #1-4 <7-10.87>, Dr. Fate v2 #1 <Win.88>-on, and many other sources. Working backward, this date approximates the end of the previous Maha Yuga; it’s interesting to note how it corresponds with Maltusian history and other cosmic events. The current Maha Yuga, meanwhile, seems primarily concerned with the fate of humanity [see 3.89 Million BCE, 2.16 Million BCE, 867,000 BCE, and 3094 BCE]. Note that Order and Chaos in the DC Universe are not equivalent to Good and Evil, at least not precisely [see, e.g., Swamp Thing Annual #2 <1.85>, ST v2 #50 <7.86>]. See also 13 Billion BCE.
  c. 4.3 Billion BCE  
  Life begins on Apokolips and New Genesis. New Gods SF #1. DoNG #5 establishes that the Source saw this as a “flawed creation.”
  c. 4.0004 Billion BCE  
  The renegade Maltusian Krona floods the beginning of time with entropy. His experiment also creates the anti-matter universe of Qward. ZHTL; Ganthet’s Tale GN <1992>; (Green Lantern v2 #40 <10.65>), and other sources. In the original, Krona’s experiment released “evil” and gave retroactive birth to the Multiverse, but the events of Crisis #10-11 <1-2.86> prevented those effects, allowing the universe to remain singular. (Note that the Crisis issues incorrectly place Krona on Oa, not Maltus. Note also that in DC’s terms parallel worlds are not the same as alternate timelines, which can continue to exist even in a singular universe.)
  To atone for Krona’s crime, his immortal colleagues relocate to Oa and become the Guardians of the Universe. Dedicated to science, the Guardians experiment with various races, including the Psions. ZHTL; SO v2 #23, and other sources. Oa is located at either the center of the universe (a scientifically ambiguous spot) or the center of the Milky Way galaxy; sources conflict.
  Killalla of the Glow, a young Oan, briefly becomes the lover of Dream… and meets his family. When she leaves him, he blames his sibling, Desire. Sandman: Endless Nights GN <2003> Date approximate: Sol is a young star, with planets not yet alive. [He eventually joins other sun gods/elementals in the Parliament of Flames: ST v2 #150, #170 <9.96>.]
  Over the following millennia, the Guardians gather the cosmos’ mystic energy into the Starheart, and create the Central Power Battery.1 With the Battery they collect and store pure “willpower” from throughout the universe (green on the “emotional spectrum”), and use it to contain a fear-parasite (yellow-hued) called Parallax—thus embedding an impurity in the green energy.2 1SO v2 #18 <9.87>, SO v2 #23, GL Corps Quarterly #5 <Sum.93>; (GL v2 #111-112 <12.78-1.79>), and other sources. Precise details of these events differ among various accounts. 2GL:Rebirth #3 <2.05>.
  c. 4 Billion BCE  
  The Guardians create the robot Manhunters, who patrol space for a billion years before rebelling against their masters. ZHTL* (moved back a billion years from “3 billion years ago” to allow for the proper age of the Green Lantern Corps); SO v2 #22-23 <1-2.88>; (JLofA v1 #140 <3.77>).
  c. 3.85 Billion BCE  
  Life begins to evolve on Earth. ZHTL* (vs. “5 Billion Years Ago” ; current scientific data).
  c. 3 Billion BCE  
  The Manhunters rebel, starting with a brutal massacre of Sector 666. GL v4 #33 <9.08>
  Hounded by the Manhunters, a thief named Larfleeze flees to the planet Okaara, in the Vega System (Sector 2828)—where he discovers the power of the Orange Lantern. The Guardians strike a deal with him, ceding authority over the system in return for his information about Sector 666. GL v4 #41 <6.09>. The orange lantern focuses the “avarice” segment of the “emotional spectrum,” as opposed to willpower for green (and yelllow for fear; red, rage; blue, hope; violet, love; and indigo, unknown).
  After a millennium-long conflict with the Manhunters, the Guardians exile their creations, and replace them with the Green Lantern Corps. ZHTL*; SO v2 #23, and other references. The first Green Lantern is said to have been Rori Dag of Rojira (GL v2 #67 <3.69>).
  Disagreeing with the disposition of the Manhunters, a splinter group of Oans leaves the planet, eventually becoming the Controllers. ZHTL* (moved forward a billion years from “4 billion years ago,” as their departure follows the founding of the GLC); SO v2 #23; (1st appearance Adventure #357 <6.67>).
  c. 2.5 Billion BCE  
  Oa’s females abandon their mates in dissatisfaction, eventually becoming the Zamarons. ZHTL; SO v2 #23, GL v4 #19 <6.07>. (See the Green Lantern Bible excerpt in Larry Niven’s Playgrounds of the Mind collection (©1992) for some interesting background on this.)
  c. 2.2 to 1.8 Billion BCE  
  Earth’s atmosphere gradually becomes oxygen-rich due to biological processes, as the first eukaryotes begin to thrive. Current scientific data. Anaerobic bacteria produced the oxygen, and their own doom. Eukaryotic life involves cells with nuclei, an innovation, and it reproduces sexually.
  c. 1 Billion BCE  
  The Guardians vow never to harm the Zamarons’ newly chosen mates—natives of the planet Korugar. GL Corps #224 <5.88>
  c. 900 to 570 Million BCE  
  Fungal life appears on Earth. Current scientific data (Neoproterozoic era). Note that in the DCU, at least some fungi (and “the Grey,” its metaphysical realm) are extraterrestrial and of much later origin (i.e., the age of the dinosaurs): ST v2 #104 <2.91>.
  c. 760 to 550 Million BCE  
  Earth’s first supercontinent, Rhodinia, splits and shifts, as a series of major Ice Ages spread across the planet. Current scientific data.
  c. 600 to 550 Million BCE  
  The Ediacaran fauna evolves in Earth’s oceans, our planet’s first complex multicellular life. Current scientific data.
  c. 543 to 520 Million BCE  
  The “Cambrian Explosion” spreads new varieties of life across Earth, as Earth’s axis shifts by 90° and the new Pangean supercontinent begins to drift apart. Current scientific data. The Cambrian was the first period of the Paleozoic Era.
  c. 425 Million BCE  
  Swamp Thing, traveling through time (see 2001/Yr13), plants Yggdrasil the World-Tree, helping to establish “the Green” and the Parliament of Trees on Earth and endowing them with his memories. ST v2 #89 <11.89> Placed here as this marks the middle of the Silurian period, the origin point of the earliest land plants, as shown in the story. Some readers argue that a reference in ST #168 calls for an implausibly earlier date, c. 4.5 Billion BCE (predating any and all life on earth!), but that applies only to the Parliament of Stones. This still allows for the existence of the various other primitive elemental forms seen throughout the ST series.
  c. 350 Million BCE  

Swamp Thing, travelling back through time (see 38,000 BCE), meets the original "trinity" of the Parliament of Trees: Yggdrasil, Tuuru (based on a tree), and Eyam (based on a trilobite). They send him further back (see 425 Million BCE).

ST v2 #89. Date approximate: Swamp Thing first thinks he has emerged in the earlier Ordovician, while the arrangement of continents he senses (post-Pangeaen Gondwana and Laurasia) indicate a period in the Jurassic, but those settings are respectively too early and too late to accommodate events above and below. This setting does both, and at least roughly fits Yggdrasil’s mention of “half a billion years,” as well as the continental arrangement and the biota seen. The earliest trees arose by c. 375 Million BCE, and trilobites lasted until c. 360 Million BCE, the Late Devonian Extinction.
  c. 310 Million BCE  
  The first amphibeans leave Earth’s oceans for land. Over the next 50 million years, they evolve into the first reptiles. Current scientific evidence (occurs during the Pennsylvanian (Upper Carboniferous) period of the Paleozoic era).
  c. 251 Million BCE  
  An unnamed planet between Mars and Jupiter is destroyed, sending debris plummeting toward Earth—carrying with it its dominant fungal life forms, “the Grey,” which infect the elemental Matango. ST v2 #104. Matango is the 13th member of the Parliament of Trees, and the last to share Swamp Thing’s memories. From the art he appears to resemble variously an Anthracosaur or a Plesiosaur, aquatic reptiles that thrived during the late Paleozoic and the Mesozoic respectively; the earlier form seems more plausible in this setting. In flashback he mentions “a meteor impact in the southern hemisphere,” and it’s later shown to be the South Pacific, ruling out the later K/T impact (which struck in the Gulf of Mexico)—thus, although a bolide impact is only one theory behind the extinction event described below, it’s obviously the correct one in the DCU.
  An unprecedented global extinction sweeps the Earth, destroying an estimated 95 percent of all species. Current scientific evidence (end of the Permian period). See, e.g., this article. Note that fossil evidence does show a “fungal spike” immediately following the event, during which new forms of fungus briefly dominated the biosphere. (Fungal life had already evolved on Earth, of course, but we can only assume it did not possess elemental intelligence, unlike the invading Grey.)
  c. 220 to 145 Million BCE  
  The dinosaurs rise to dominance, as Earth’s first mammals evolve in their shadow. Current scientific data (the Triassic and Jurassic periods, marking the beginning of the Mesozoic Era).
  Civilization on Mars (“Ma’aleca’andra”) reaches a scientific peak, and expands to colonize the solar system. The Martians create an oupost on Earth, in what will become Antarctica. They also build artificial environments in the atmosphere of Saturn, and eventually populate them with clones. Martian Manhunter #4 <3.99>, #25 <12.00>. Date very approximate… but per the latter source, this occurs when dinosaurs existed and Antarctica was warm and fertile (and if not quite “tropical” as stated, in this period it had at least a “warm temperate” climate). The cloned red and white Saturnians are the forebears of Jemm [see 1999/Yr11]. [See 18,000 BCE for possible conflicting history.]
  The Green creates a dinosaur-based elemental, the so-called “Swamp Knucker.” ST v2 #72 <5.88 >. Precise date unknown.
  c. 200 Million BCE  
  The villain Chronos is stranded here after battling the Atom, and places himself in suspended animation to wait for the return of his home era. Blue Beetle v5 #22 <3.88>. (Various other modern characters, including, e.g., Captain Atom and Monarch— Armageddon: Alien Agenda #1 <11.91>—have also been trapped at least temporarily in the “Age of the Dinosaurs.”)
  c. 100 Million BCE  
  A time-lost Superman (see 2001/Yr13) encounters the stranded villain Chronos, briefly awakened. Action Comics #664—“Time and Time Again, Phase V,” <4.91>.
  c. 65 Million BCE  
  Earth’s dinosaurs fall prey to an extinction event. Any survivors are hunted to extinction by an alien race of “Hunter/Gatherers.” Mammals ascend to dominance. Current scientific data (end of the Cretaceous period and the Mesozoic Era, beginning of the Cenozoic Era); Hunter/Gatherers from Aquaman v5 #17 <2.96>. Note that a few dinosaurs do survive in scattered outposts: namely Skartaris and the South Pacific’s “Dinosaur Island.”
  c. 5 Million BCE  
  A “Great Humanoid Diaspora” spreads biologically similar species throughout the Milky Way galaxy. Green Lantern #35 <1.93>. This obviously can’t account for all of the DCU’s humanoid races, but it could explain a lot. Details remain unchronicled, however.
  c. 5 to 4.4 Million BCE  
  The earliest known hominids (Ardipithecines) appear in Africa, possible ancestors of modern humanity. Current scientific evidence (mid-Pliocene epoch of the Tertiary period of the Cenozoic Era). Discovered in the mid to late 1990s.
  c. 4.2 to 2.5 Million BCE  
  Various hominids of a new genus (Australopithecines) develop and thrive in Africa, including likely ancestors of modern humanity. Current scientific evidence (still mid-Pliocene epoch).
  c. 3.89 Million BCE  
  The present Maha Yuga begins its first phase (the Satya Yuga). Date according to Hindu belief [see 4.324 Billion BCE].
  c. 2.4 to 2.0 Million BCE  
  Homo habilis evolves in Africa, first of the genus Homo and considered a direct ancestor of modern humans. Current scientific evidence ( late Pliocene epoch). Homo habilis, the first proto-human to create and use tools, survived until circa 1.5 million BCE.
  c. 2.16 Million BCE  
  The Treta Yuga begins (the “Age of Knowledge,” second phase of the Maha Yuga), and existence grows more chaotic. Date according to Hindu belief [see 4.324 Billion BCE]. We may surmise from this and other sources that magical energies began to flow more freely during this period [see 1,000,000 BCE].
  c. 2.0 to 1.8 Million BCE  
  As the Ice Ages return, Homo erectus develops, the first hominid to use shelter, the first to venture beyond Africa, and (eventually) the first to tame fire. (One female specimen becomes “Bog Venus,” the first human-based plant elemental.) Current scientific evidence (Pleistocene epoch of the Quaternary period). Homo erectus prospers until circa 300,000 BCE, inaugurating the Paleolithic Age (Early Stone Age), and (although some experts distinguish the ancestral form as H. ergaster) gradually evolving into early Homo sapiens. Bog Venus: ST v2 #68 <1.88>.
  A “new race of man” emerges, with “an inherent potential… for devastation and ruin” that is unlocked by the Grey-corrupted elemental Matango via a “fruit of knowledge.” ST v2 #104. In strict biological terms this would occur somewhat later, but is placed here to accommodate what appears to be the DCU’s earliest race of Homo sapiens, the Atlanteans [below]. The “new race” is actually a result of genetic input from the returning Hunter/Gatherers [see 65 Million BCE], according to Aquaman v5 #17.
History Notes and References
  c. 1,000,000 BCE   ↑ top
The first great human civilization begins to develop on the island continent of Atlantis. Atlanteans eventually migrate around the globe, founding at least 12 major city-states, each housing a a mystic gemstone. ZHTL*; (Arion, Lord of Atlantis #4-5 <2-3.83>; see also the DC Heroes Magic Sourcebook.) Denizens of Atlantis were a separate and advanced evolutionary offshoot, perhaps influenced by latent mystical energies, and most likely the precursors of Homo (sapiens) magi, Zatanna’s race.
  Another early civilization develops, then perishes along with its homeland of Lemuria (but “Zanadu the Chaos Lord” survives in stasis until 1997/Yr9). Infinity, Inc. v1 #39 <6.87>; (confirming by recap All-Star Comics #61-63 <7-8–11-12.76>).
  c. 867,000 BCE  
  The Dwapara Yuga begins (the “Age of Sacrifice,” third phase of the Maha Yuga); chaos increases. Date according to Hindu belief [see 4.324 Billion BCE]. Magic probably begins to wane again [see 43,000 BCE].
  c. 600,000 BCE  
  The alien H’V’Ler’Ni establish the city-state of A’R’Ven on Earth. Superman v2 #5-6 <5-6.87>
  c. 525,600 BCE  
  Atlantis reaches its height under the leadership of the sorcerer Caculha, who defeats the evil Dark Majistra and their son Garn Daanuth—with the aid of their other son Ah’rian, whose life energy is mystically preserved. ZHTL*; Who’s Who in the DC Universe v2 Update ’93 <12.92-1.93>; (Arion #4-5). [See note below, at 43,000 BCE.] Note also that pre-Crisis, this was set only 100,000 years before Arion’s return, c. 143,000 BCE.
  c. 500,000 BCE  
  The H’V’Ler’Ni depart Earth, witnessed by a time-lost Superman (see 2002/Yr14). Action #664—“T&TA, pt. V.”
  On Krypton, civilization has been lost, the planet fallen into a dark age. Taking a stand against the despotic Utor, Superman’s ancestors found the House of El. Superman: Blood of My Ancestors <2003>. Note that despite changes to the recent history of Krypton in the“New Earth” Universe, there is thus far no reason to believe that its ancient history has been altered. This also applies to several entries below.
  The first recorded Historic Age of the planet Krypton begins. World of Krypton mini-series #1 <12.87>, Action #652 <4.90>.
  c. 245,000 BCE  
  On ancient Krypton, the being later known as Doomsday is created by an unfortunate band of scientists. He escapes, in short order confronting several New Gods, and devastating Khundia and much of the Green Lantern Corps, before being incapacitated by the natives of Calaton. Superman/Doomsday: Hunter/Prey #1-3 <6-8.94>; Doomsday Annual #1 <1995>. Darkseid’s appearance here in his current form, which he did not assume until much later [see 7th Century], may be apocryphal or may be a result of time travel by the New God.
  c. 230,000 BCE  
  Homo (sapiens) neanderthalensis (“Neanderthal Man”) evolves and spreads widely across Eurasia. Current scientific evidence. Studies of mitochondrial DNA confirm that Neanderthals are not direct ancestors of moderns humans, however.
  During Krypton’s 5th Historic Age, a dispute over clone rights leads the scientist Kem-L to create a great weapon called the Eradicator [which binds Kryptonians inextricably to their home planet]. World of Krypton mini-series #1-2 <12.87-1.88>, Action Annual #2 <89>, Adventures of Superman #460 <11.89>. The history of the Eradicator may be different post-Infinite Crisis, but if so it has yet to be revealed in a story. The bond to the planet has definitely been superseded, however, given Krypton’s newly revealed spacefaring history: e.g., Superman #669 <12.07>.
  c. 110,000 BCE  
  A war occurs between the fungal Grey and the elemental Green. The patriarchs of the Green migrate from their Antarctic “Eden” to the basin of what will be the Tefé River in Brazil, reaching a compromise with the Grey that leaves Earth to the depradations of Homo sapiens. ST v2 #100 <10.90>, 104-105 <2-3.91>, 107-108 <5-6.91>. Date approximate. It is described as “millennia” ago, specifically the dawn of “the last Ice Age,” which geological evidence places here. (Its point of maximum glaciation comes around 18,000-16,000 BCE.)
  c. 100,000 BCE  
  During Krypton’s 6th Historic Age—a millennium-long global war—a terrorist group called Black Zero detonates a bomb at the core of the planet, eventually leading to Krypton’s destruction (see 1938). World of Krypton mini-series #3-4 <2-3.88>. Black Zero was also responsible for the nuclear destruction of this era’s city of Kandor.
  before 78,000 BCE  
  Krypton’s civilization enjoys a last flowering, a “golden age… [of] passion and wonder,” before settling into a long period of stagnation. Action #793 <9.02>. This age, described only as “well over 80,000 years” ago, is notably reminiscent of DC’s Silver Age version of Krypton.
  c. 48,000 BCE  
  A powerful meteor fragment confers immortality on two proto-Cro-Magnons, who will become Vandal Savage and the Immortal Man. ZHTL*; DC Villains Secret Files #1 <4.99>. Note: the ZH Timeline crowds several events into one vague prehistoric era (“100 Thousand/50 Thousand Years Ago”); I’ve tried to be more precise. (VS 1st app. GL v1 #10 <Win.43>; IM 1st app. Strange Adventures #177 <6.65>.) One recent story [JSA Classified #10-13 <5-8.06> describes Savage’s origin as only 37,000 years ago, but the preponderance of evidence supports the longer span.
  Rip Hunter (see 2001/Yr13) is trapped in this era after trying unsuccessfully to prevent Savage’s origin, until rescued by Walker (Chronos) Gabriel. ZHTL*; Time Masters #8 <9.90>, Chronos #1 <3.98> [text page], DC Heroes Secret Files #1 <2.99>.
  c. 43,000 BCE  
  Vandal Savage is shipwrecked in Atlantis, and begins the Society of the Children of the Light. TM #6-7 <7-8.90>; said to occur “a few hundred years” before Arion’s era.
  The mage Arion returns and comes to power in Atlantis (see 525,000 BCE). Aided by the warrior Wyynde and the Lady Chian, he fights many battles to protect Atlantis from his brother Garn and other threats. Scant years later, however, a battle with invaders from space causes the sinking of the City of the Golden Gate, the continent’s capital. ZHTL*; (Arion #1-36 <11.82-10.85>, Arion Special #1 <11.85>). Much of the continent remains intact at this time [see 9600 BCE]—but this event, combined with the general waning of magic, is a great blow to Atlantean civilization.
  Arion sends out exploratory Swan ships to seek new lands (at least one of these ships discovers the hidden land of Skartaris). He also (at least in a transitory hypertimeline) sends his granddaughter Kara to the future (see 1997/Yr9). Roughly a century after the sinking of the City of the Golden Gate. Re: Skartaris: History of the DCU; (orig. Warlord #27 <11.79>, #39 <11.80>, -Annual #2 <83>). Re: Kara: SO v2 #11 <2.87>, TM #7. However, JSAC #4 <12.05> reveals that this “origin” was actually only one of many impermanent attempts by the timeline to “correct” for her anomalous presence from Earth-2.
  c. 40,000 BCE  
  The earliest known battle between Vandal Savage and his recurring nemesis Resurrection Man occurs. DCVSF #1. Savage appears to have reverted to cavedwelling ways during this period. It is unclear what memories he retains of Atlantean culture.
  Aurakles, Earth's “original super-hero,” fights Neh-Buh-Loh, servant of the Sheeda queen Gloriana Tenebrae. Seven Soldiers #1 <12.06>; (both first appear in different form, as Oracle and Nebula Man, in JLofA v1 #100 <8.72).
  c. 38,000 BCE  
  The GodWave (see 5 Billion BCE) makes its initial pass over Earth. New Gods SF #1
  Anthro is born, the first true Cro-Magnon. Kong the Untamed soon follows. History of the DCU. Best scientific date. The Cro-Magnon culture represents the first full Homo sapiens sapiens—modern humans—to colonize Europe (although technically the archaic form of the species emerged by c. 195,000 BCE), and also the first to create art. Metron of the New Gods also grants Anthro control over fire (which is paleontologically anachronistic), in Final Crisis #1 <7.08>. (Anthro 1st app. Showcase #74 <5.68>; Kong 1st app. Kong the Untamed #1 <6-7.75>)
  At the end of his life, Anthro is attended by someone who apperas to be Bruce Wayne. (See 2010/Yr22.) Final Crisis #7 <3.09>.
  Swamp Thing, lost in time (see 2001/Yr13), encounters a tribe of Neanderthals who create a cup that will later become the Holy Grail (see 30 CE, 517 CE). They are overrun by neighboring Cro-Magnons. ST v2 #88 <10.89>. One oppressed tribe of Neanderthals migrates to the Himalayas, where they become party of the Yeti legend, surviving until roughly 200 BCE: ST v2 #106 <4.91>.
  c. 33,000 BCE  
  The first “Gods” appear on Earth, one among countless local pantheons across the cosmos given birth by the GodWave (beginning the “Third World”). New Gods SF #1. Among the earliest are the Titans, offspring of the earth-spirit Gaea, who themselves later give birth to the Olympian pantheon: History of the DCU. Note also that the Norse pantheon bears an uncanny resemblance to the long-dead Old Gods.
  c. 30,000 BCE  
  One of the last Neanderthals kills the woman who is later reincarnated as Hippolyte. ZHTL*; Wonder Woman v2 #1 <2.87>.
  c. 28,000 BCE  
  Denizens of Apokolips and New Genesis attain “Godhood” (and the “Fourth World” begins). New Gods SF #1. Apokolips is ruled by Yuga Khan [New Gods v2 #16 <6.90>], later succeeded by his wife Heggra. Their son Uxas is born c. 22,000 BCE.
  c. 18,000 BCE  
  A race of warlike, asexual “Burning Martians” dominates Mars, until the Guardians of the Universe intervene to “nudge” Martian genetics in a different direction… and implant their telepathic fear of fire. One Oan vessel crashes on Earth, where a Burning Martian encounters Vandal Savage leading a Cro-Magnon tribe across the Bering Strait land bridge. JLA #86-87 <11.03>. Note that this conflicts with history given in the Martian Manhunter’s own series [see 220-145 Million BCE]. To reconcile both accounts, we may speculate that the tinkering Oans either (A) implanted the “race memory” of a false history in all Martians, or more likely (B) transported the “adjusted” Martians back in time to begin evolution anew, thus technically relegating the Burning Martians’ origins to a deliberately negated (hyper)timeline.
  c. 14,000 BCE  
  The Star-Spangled Kid is briefly stranded in this prehistoric age (see 1948, 1995/Yr7). Stars & S.T.R.I.P.E. #0 <7.99>, #9 <4.00>; (orig. JLofA v1 #100-102 <8-10.72>).
  c. 13,000? BCE  
  New God Uxas (the son of Yuga Khan and Heggra; later to become Darkseid) visits Earth, and initiates a second group of human believers in the Greek gods. New Gods SF #1. This could alternately be set much later, given Byrne’s own separate reference to the visit being to “a village founded by a human called Romulus” [WW v2 #132 <4.98>], as Romulus is traditionally dated c. 753 BCE.
  c. 12,000? BCE  
  The Greek gods create avatars of themselves for the new worshippers, which grow to become the independent Roman pantheon, resulting in a schism. WW v2 #132
  First recorded appearance of Metron of the New Gods. New Gods SF #1 [“14,000 Years Ago”].
  c. 10,000 BCE  
  Earth’s last great Ice Age draws to an end. End of the Mesolithic Age (Middle Stone Age) and the Pleistocene epoch, beginning of the Neolithic Age and the (ongoing) Holocene epoch.
  c. 9600 BCE  
  The remains of the continent of Atlantis sink beneath the ocean. Only scattered cities survive underwater: notably Poseidonis, ruled by King Orin, and Tritonis, where his brother, the priest Shalako, leads a contingent of followers. A serum allows the survivors to breath underwater, and the Tritonians are mystically converted to tailed mer-people. ZHTL*; The Atlantis Chronicles #1-2 <3-4.90>, WWho v2 <8.90-2.92>. The catastrophe is recounted later by Egyptian priests to the traveling sage Solon, and through him eventually to the philosopher Socrates, as related in Plato’s dialogues Timaeus and Critias (written c. 360 BCE). Note that Aquaman Secret Files #1 <12.98> lists this as “40 Thousand Years Ago,” a mind-boggling distortion.
  Vandal Savage and an incarnation of Resurrection Man battle in catastrophe-era Atlantis. DCVSF #1
  Orin’s grandson, the mutated Kordax, provokes a civil war and is banished. His appearance underlies the eventual Atlantean stigma against blond hair. Atlantis Chronicles #3-5 <5-7.90>
  c. 8200 BCE  
  The frightful offspring of the demon Echida are imprisoned in a box that falls into the hands of a human queen, Pandora… who is cursed to guard it. Lady Constantine #4 <5.03>. See 1785.
  c. 8000 BCE  
  In the wake of Atlantis rises the “First Arthurian Epoch,” in which a proto-Arthur and his Knights of the Broken Table preside over a short-lived empire. It falls at the hands of the futuristic Sheeda and their queen Gloriana Tenebrae… but a single young knight, Sir Ystina, escapes into time with her winged horse Vanguard (see 2008/Yr20). Gloriana’s consort, Melmoth, is left behind in the past. Seven Soldiers: Shining Knight #3 <8.05>, #1 <5.05>. Note that these characters do not supersede the more “historical” Romano-British King Arthur and Sir Justin [see 6th Century CE], who appear to be later avatars of the same heroic ideals. Re: Melmoth: SS: Frankenstein #2 <3.06>.
  Nada, a queen in Africa, falls in love with Morpheus, Lord of Dreams… but flees him in fear. Spurned and angry, he consigns her to Hell. Sandman #4 <4.89> [also the first appearance of the current version of Lucifer], #9 <9.89>.
  A young boy in Canaan is gifted by ancient gods with the powers that will give him his name… Shazam. He serves for over five thousand years as his people’s champion, Vlarem, during which time he creates the Rock of Eternity, and also is deceived into fathering the demons Blaze and Satanus. Power of Shazam #10 <12.95>. Date based on the fact that the world’s first walled town, Jericho, is established in Canaan at around this time, as depicted in the story.
  c. 7000? BCE  
  Eclipso, the god of vengeance, devastates the ancient world with the Great Flood of Biblical legend. He is banished to the moon, trapped by the crystalline Heart of Darkness (see 1891), and replaced by the Spectre (see 15 Billion BCE) as the Lord’s official agent of vengeance. Spectre v3 #14 <1.94>. Date from Demon Annual #1 <92>, featuring a 9,000-year-old man named Xavier Nihilo who was allegedly made immortal by Eclipso at the time of the flood.
(But for this story, I would have conjectured c. 3100 BCE, based on Biblical traditions according to the Book of Genesis [as derived from Septuagint sources, although interpretations differ—see 1830 BCE], and in light of archaeological evidence for a major flood in Mesopotamia around that time. The deluge is found among the region’s other legends as well. Moreover, it could instead fall up to thousands of years earlier, possibly in connection with melting glaciers and/or the sinking of Atlantis [see 10,000 & 9600 BCE].)
  c. 5000 BCE  
  Dr. Mist (aka Nommo of Kor, a lost African empire) gains his powers but loses his nation, in battle with the mage Felix Faust. He survives to the present day. ZHTL; SO v2 #27 <6.88>. Kor is a reference to H. Rider Haggard’s pulp classic She (1887). Mist has also gone by the name Maltis: Primal Force #1 <11.94> et seq. (Faust’s presence in this story retconned him into an ancient being, as he had previously been depicted only as a contemporary character: e.g., Books of Magic mini-series #2 <2.91>; (JLofA v1 #10 <3.62>). (The story’s plotter has revealed online that the villain was originally intended to be Wotan.)
  3582 BCE  
  In ancient Sumer, Vandal Savage kills the inventor of the wheel and claims it as his own. JSAC #10 <5.06>. The date and location are in the story, and are roughly accurate, according to archaeological evidence.
  c. 3500 BCE  
  The Lord of Order Nabu is first incarnated on Earth. JSA Secret Files #1 <8.99>
  c. 3500 to 2700? BCE  
  Vandal Savage rules as a king in ancient Sumer—possibly giving rise to ancient legends of immortal rulers reigning for millennia. WWho v2; no date is provided, but it is in this period that Sumerian civilization grew and developed writing, leaving the earliest historical records—leading up to the first documented Sumerian dynasty, c. 2700 BCE, which included the to-be-legendary King Gilgamesh. In DCU terms, this is not the first flowering of human civilization, but rather its attempt to crawl forth again from the wreckage of a long-lost past.
  c. 3094 BCE  
  The Kali Yuga begins (the “Age of Discord”), fourth and final phase of the current Maha Yuga. The Lords of Order first fight it, but later try to hasten it, seeking its aftermath. Date according to Hindu belief [see 4.324 Billion BCE]. Note the interesting correlation with Nabu’s arrival—and with the general spread of human civilization, as the Bronze Age begins at around this time.
  before 3000 BCE  
  Unethical genetic experiments by the White Martian race lead to a Martian civil war, which the Green race wins at great cost. Mars’ major outposts (on Earth and Saturn) are destroyed or abandoned. MM #4, #25. Date very approximate. [See 220-145 Million BCE.] The White Martian experiments, it is hinted, may underlie psionic powers among Earth’s metahumans. If sufficiently earlier in prehistory—per the remarks of the White Martians in JLA v1 #4 <4.97> [see 2003/Yr15], who claim to have steered human evolution itself—these experiments may even explain the existence of the metagene, which (it must be noted) frequently seems to operate so as to duplicate various “"innate” Martian powers.
  c. 3000? BCE  
  A bird-headed race visits ancient Egypt in its Archaic period, influencing its mythology, before leaving to establish the arctic city of Feithera. WWho v2; they are ancestors of Northwind, a known post-Crisis member of Infinity, Inc. (1st app. Flash Comics v1 #71 <5.46>.)
  Martians create a small colony in Egypt to monitor early human civilization, masquerading as animal-headed gods. When the environment begins to affect their health, a renegade group takes over human bodies and the colony disappears. MM #25-26 <12.00-1.01>. One might speculate that the Feitherans may also have been migrating Martians. No connection of either group to the pantheon of actual Egyptian gods is known, however.
  The remote Asian city-state of Jarhanpur sequesters itself from the outside world. JLA v1 #62 <3.02>
  c. 2613 BCE  
  Vandal Savage rules Egypt as Khufu (aka Cheops), the first Pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty, and builder of the Great Pyramid at Giza. Khufu is also impersonated at some point by the wizard Kulak. WWho v1 #25 <3.87> [re: Savage]; JSA v2 #8-10 <3-5.93> [re: Kulak (1st app. All-Star Comics #2 <Aut.40>)]. There is no scholarly agreement on Old Kingdom dates; I’ve selected this date (among many, up to three centuries earlier or later) to best agree with other DC-canonical dates [see below]. It’s interesting to note that the history by the famous Egyptian sage Manetho (c. 270 BCE) described Khufu as “of a different race.”
  2578 BCE  
  The Pharaoh Kha-ef-re (aka Khafre or Chephren) is buried as an undead mummy with the mystic Blue Scarab gem (much later to become the power source for the original Blue Beetle; see 1939), as the result of a confrontation with the Lord of Order Nabu and the time-travelling Bonnie Baxter (see 2001/Yr13). An attempt to resurrect him is disrupted by two time-travelling Booster Golds. He is thereafter impersonated by Vandal Savage. SO v2 #2 <5.86>, TM #6-7 <7-8.90> [gives date], Booster Gold v2 #18 <5.09>. DC had previously placed Cheops’ son Kha-ef-re c. 2000 BCE (the 11th or 12th dynasty!), but the historical record puts him here in the 4th, the pyramid-building period; his own accomplishments include the Sphinx. (Again, there is much controversy over Egyptian dates; this one is expressly valid for the DCU, however). Savage may actually have been impersonating him all along, letting an impostor be buried; the accounts don’t reconcile without ambiguity. In that connection it’s also interesting that Kha-ef-re is thought to have been followed by one or two unknown successors before the throne was assumed by the better-recorded Menkaure. (On a side note, that’s approximately where the Marvel Universe’s “Rama-Tut” fits into history!) The relationship between this origin of the Scarab and the history revealed in Blue Beetle v5 #17-18 <5.86> and BB v6 #12 <4.07> remains to be clarified.
  c. 2300 to 2000 BCE  
  Stonehenge is erected on Britain’s Salisbury Plain. Rough date range, based on the latest archaeological evidence. Vandal Savage claims to have designed Stonehenge: JLA:Year One #12? <12.98>. Per Arthurian legend, Merlin (see 6th Century CE) also claims to have erected it. Both claims may be spurious, but it’s interesting to note that Savage also once impersonated Merlin [WWho v1 #25]. It has also been attributed to former Atlantean masons: Hellblazer #22 <9.89>.
  c. 2060 BCE  
  Egyptian prince Amentep becomes Ibis the Invincible (see 1940). He rules his lands “with great fairness, for many years” until, tired of life, he places himself and his queen Taia in suspended animation to await a more exciting age. PoS #11 <1.96>. We know only that this was “some four thousand years” before his awakening. Depending on one’s choice of scholarly date, he could have been one of a series of princes who maintained peace in central Egypt during the otherwise-chaotic First Intermediate Period, or an ordinary prince during the more stable 11th or early 12th Dynasties that launched the Middle Kingdom.
  c. 2025 to 2000 BCE  
  Nabu becomes more active on Earth, combatting the evil Egyptian priest Khalis, among others. History of the DCU; (battle with Khalis from 1st Issue Special #9 <12.75>).
  Jo Nah of the Legion, dislocated in time (see 2995 in Hypertimeline L1), encounters Nabu, who sends him back to his home era. LSH v4 #18-19 <5-6.91>
  c. 1830? BCE  
  The Spectre, as the incarnate wrath of God, destroys Sodom and Gomorrah. Spectre v3 #14. Date is conjecture, based on traditional Biblical history (according to Genesis 19:24-25); this occurs after Abram left Mesopotamia for Canaan,and just before the birth of his son Isaac. Analysis is complicated, though, by the fact that variant source documents—e.g., the Hebrew Masoretic text of the Old Testament (on which most English Bibles are based), the older Samaritan Pentateuch, and the Greek Septuagint (in use during Biblical times, and still today in the Eastern Orthodox), all give different spans of time dating back to the Patriarchs (and to the Flood; see 7000 BCE). I’ve opted to follow the Masoretic (thus passing the “430 years” from Exodus 12:40 in Egypt alone), but adjusted slightly to accommodate the Exodus date used below [see 13th Century BCE], the best fit for actual Egyptian history.
  c. 1730-1567 BCE  
  Indo-European charioteers known as Hyksos (or “Shepherd-Kings”) enter and occupy Egypt through the Sinai Peninsula, bringing the Middle Kingdom to an end and establishing their own dynasties (the 15th and 16th). Historical record. This was previously the era of Prince Khufu (later reincarnated as Hawkman), but no longer [see 13th Century BCE]. There is speculation (which fits this timeline) that the Biblical Joseph may have come to Egypt during this period.
  15th Century BCE  
  [c. 1450? BCE] The Aegean island of Thera (aka Santorini) explodes in a huge volcanic eruption, devastating the Minoan civilization on nearby Crete; the Mycenaeans rise to greater regional prominence in the aftermath. Historical record. This date is also highly contentious; however, this is the most accepted interpretation. The Minoans and, even more, the Mycenaeans, lie at the root of many familiar Greek myths from later centuries.
  The musician Orpheus, son of Dream, voyages to the underworld on a futile quest to rescue his lost bride Eurydice. The Maenades (aka Bacchae), angry at his temerity, tear his still-living head from his body and cast it adrift. Sandman Special #1 <91>, adapting a familiar tale from Greek mythology. No specific date is provided, but it fits in this general era.
  14th Century BCE  
  [1351 BCE] The time-traveler Chronos II (Walker Gabriel) steals an artifact from Knossos, on Crete, at the behest of Vandal Savage. Legends of the DCU 80-Pg Giant #1 <9.98>
  13th Century BCE  
  [c. 1290 BCE] Rameses II ascends to the throne of Egypt, at its peak as the greatest empire of the age. The former Canaanite champion now known as Shazam (see 7000 BCE) is allied with the Pharaoh as a wizard and high priest, as is Nabu (see 3500 BCE). Rameses II (“the Great”), aka Ozymandias, was the third and arguably strongest Pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty (New Kingdom), reigning for 67 years after the brief reigns of Rameses I and Seti I, and building the monuments at Abu Simbel along the Upper Nile. This is the most traditional date for his ascension (although there is no scholarly consensus), and the best overall fit for other events of this Chronology. Re: Shazam: PoS #10; Nabu: Spectre v3 #14.
  The Pharaoh cruelly oppresses the growing population of Israelites living in Egypt’s Nile delta region, ordering the drowning of all boys under five (from which edict Moses is surreptitiously rescued), and earning the ire of the Spectre. Spectre v3 #14. This must fall early in his reign, as Moses was reportedly 80 at the time of the Exodus [see 1210 BCE, below]. This story does not name the Pharaoh, and it could arguably be an earlier or later one, but conventional Biblical interpretation identifies Rameses II as the Pharaoh of the Oppression—although this shortens by half the “480 year” span the Bible (in I Kings 6:1) describes between the Exodus and Solomon [see 970 BCE], that figure is usually dismissed as symbolic only. (Alternately, some scholars prefer an earlier date, c. 1450-1420 BCE, during the 18th Dynasty. More recently, others have even suggested a revised interpretation moving the 19th Dynasty to the 10th Century BCE, placing the Oppression and Exodus c. 1450 BCE but during the 13th Dynasty.)
  [c. 1270 BCE] Shazam creates his first successor—granting one of Rameses’ sons, Teth-Adam, access to his own gods-given powers. The new “Mighty Adam” serves loyally, and arranges a major treaty with the Hittites. ZHTL; PoS #10. Earlier (pre-Crisis) DC accounts had dated Mighty Adam c. 3000 BCE, but this story leaves no room for doubt. Rameses II did indeed war with the Hittite empire, and reached a treaty with them in his 21st regnal year (i.e., c. 1270 BCE).
  The time-lost hero Stripesy is briefly stranded and enslaved in Egypt, until rescued by Starman, Hourman, and the Batman (aided by a young Prince Khufu). S&S #0, #9; (orig. JLofA v1 #100-102) [see 1994/Yr7]. This Khufu [see below] is unrelated to his earlier namesake, aka Cheops [see 2613 BCE].
  On a time-jump from the future (see 2005/Yr17), Jay (Flash) Garrick encounters Prince Khufu Kha-Taar of Egypt, his bodyguard Mighty Adam (aka Khem Adam/Black Adam), and the court magician Nabu. They show him a crashed Thanagarian spacecraft, and for his return trip give him a gauntlet of “Nth Metal” (an anti-gravity substance discovered in the wreck), to aid in a prophesied battle. JSA v3 #20-22 <3-5.01>. Khufu’s life was previously stated to fall during the era of the Hyksos [see 1730-1567 BCE], the Second Intermediate Period, with the conflict between the foreign-ruled 16th and native 17th Dynasties as background for his death. However, JSA #22 relocates him to the 19th Dynasty—as confirmed online by writer David Goyer—making Khufu one of the many sons of Rameses (and thus a half-brother of Teth-Adam). (Hawkman SF #1 <10.02> and JSA v3 #43 <2.03> mistakenly indicate the 15th Dynasty; ignore.)
  Vandal Savage (alongside evil priest Ahk-Ton and his Orb of Ra) overruns the Kahndaq region (killing Teth-Adam’s family), and attacks the temple city of Karnak. Khufu, Adam and Nabu fend him off—aided by Mr. Terrific, Captain Marvel, and Hawkgirl from the future (specifically 2006/Yr18), and the god Ra himself. JSA v3 #42-44 <1-3.03>. Set when Jay Garrick’s visit was still “recent.” The Orb of Ra is later instrumental in the origin of Metamorpho [Metamorpho #1 <8.93>, which mistakenly characterizes Ahk-Ton as a Pharaoh].
  Prince Khufu and his fiancée Chay-ara are murdered by the evil priest Hath-Set. They will be reincarnated in the 20th Century as Carter Hall and Shiera Sanders (see 1939). SO v2 #11, Hawkman Annual #2 <95> [this cannot occur precisely as shown in these post-Crisis sources, however, due to the retconned dating of Khufu’s lifetime; see above], Hawkman SF #1; (Flash Comics v1 #1 <1.40>).
  [c. 1223 BCE] The Spectre battles and defeats Nabu, and ultimately kills the Pharaoh. Spectre v3 #14. Historical end of Rameses’ 67-year reign. This cannot immediately follow the events surrounding Moses’ birth, as seemingly depicted; it occurs when he is an adult in exile (see Genesis 3:23).
  Shazam leaves Egypt upon Rameses’ death. Mighty Adam is apparently corrupted by his power, however (bewitched by the demoness Blaze, Shazam’s daughter), and tries to usurp the throne… forcing Shazam to return and remove those powers, imprisoning the former hero at Abu Simbel (see 1994/Yr6). PoS #10; JSA v3 #44 [Adam claims he only sought to protect his homeland]. Integrating the histories of Shazam and the Spectre in this period, when neither tale acknowledges the other, is a delicate business, but ultimately everything fits. This sequence, for example, would occur between panels on page 12 of Spectre v3 #14. Rameses II is succeeded at this time by his eldest surviving son, Merneptah.
  [c. 1210 BCE] Moses and his brother Aaron lead the oppressed Israelites on an exodus from Egypt—assisted by the Spectre, who casts a series of plagues upon Egypt and inundates Pharaoh’s army at the Red Sea. (Nabu, his powers waning, presumably places himself in suspended animation not long after this, where he remains until 1940.) Spectre v3 #14. Merneptah (whose reign ends here) is traditionally identified as the Pharaoh of the Exodus. An artifact known as the “Merneptah Stele” refers to enmity with the Israelites as a distinct people (although this is open to differing interpretations). Note further that Merneptah was followed by five Pharaohs in rapid and chaotic succession, before the rise of Rameses III [see 1183 BCE, below]. Vandal Savage claims to have “fought beside Moses” [JSAC #13 <8.06>].
  12th Century BCE  
  [c. 1200 BCE] The Olympian goddesses create the immortal Amazons, reincarnating the souls of 2,500 women who died by violence. ZHTL; WW v2 #1, #120 <4.97>.
  A time-lost Stuff, the Chinatown Kid, is briefly enthralled by the sorceress Circe before being rescued. S&S #0, #9; (orig. JLofA v1 #100-102). Dating is very approximate. The original tale involved the Earth-2 Speedy.
  [c. 1184 BCE] After a ten-year siege, the Achaean leaders of Mycenaean Greece destroy Troy in the Trojan War. (The Seven Soldiers of Victory (see 1942) are briefly present, pursuing Dr. Doome.) Traditional dating, based on identifying the legendary war with Troy’s stratum VIIa ruins. Some scholars prefer a date up to a century earlier, connected with Troy VIh, but this version best fits this Chronology. This triumph is the Acheans’ final blaze of glory, however, and it is short-lived; they return to find many of their cities usurped, abandoned, or overrun by anarchy during their absence. SSoV reference: (Leading Comics #3 <Sum.42>; All-Star Squadron #29 <1.84>.)
  [c. 1183 BCE] When Prince Atlan of Poseidonis rediscovers the surface world, Atlantean armies under King Honsu attempt to invade, but are driven back by the Egyptians and Athenians. The dissenting Idylists leave Atlantis. The Atlantis Chronicles #6-7 <8-9.90>, which places this event in the reign of Rameses III (20th Dynasty), Egypt’s last great Pharaoh. He held the throne c. 1187-1156 BCE (best fit dates), the end of the Bronze Age, and is known to have battled mysterious “Sea Peoples” (who, besides the DCU’s Atlanteans, may also have included resettling Phoenicians, Philistines, and Trojan refugees) in the fifth year of his reign. After Rameses III (and given events in Greece and elsewhere), the entire Mediterranean apparently fell into a “Dark Age” for several centuries, as the Bronze Age gave way to the Iron Age, and this era faded into myth. (A few scholars dispute this dating [see 13th C. BCE], and would place this era later and eliminate the Dark Age; however, it makes sense for this Chronology.) Atlan will eventually become Aquaman’s father [see 1986]; the Idylists will be Aqualad’s people [see 1991/Yr3].
  [c. 1170 BCE] After 40 years of wandering in the Sinai, the Israelites arrive in Canaan, where they drive out the native dwellers—aided by the Spectre, who, e.g., causes the walls to crumble at the battle of Jericho. Spectre v3 #0 <10.94>. The reconquest of the Promised Land can be found in the Bible in Joshua 6-10. Historically, the region was already weakened (and Egyptian hegemony ended) by the wars, migrations, and chaos of previous decades.
  11th Century BCE  
  [1020 BCE] Atlantis’ capital city is raised from the depths by exiled sorceress Gamemnae, who binds her powers to it. JLA #75 <1.03>. This is Atlantis’ “Obsidian Age.”
  [1015 BCE] Atlantean refugees arrive from the future (see 2005/Yr17). Gamemnae enslaves them, fearing the future they portend for Atlantis. JLA:OWAW <01>, JLA v2 #72 <11.02>.
  [1004 BCE] Gamemnae recruits an international “League of Warriors” to protect Atlantis’ interests. JLA v2 #70 <10.02>, JLA/JSA SF #1 <1.03> [gives date].
  10th Century BCE  
  [1000 BCE] The Justice League arrives from the future, seeking Aquaman and his people (see 2006/Yr18). The first wave of Leaguers’ souls are trapped in the risen city by a “containment spell,” but a second team follows, frees Arthur (who re-sinks the city), returns his people to the present, and restores the proper timeline. JLA v2 #68-75 <9.02-1.03>. The entire period is thereafter stricken from Atlantis’ official Chronicles.
  [c. 1000 BCE] Defeated by Heracles, the Amazons are exiled by the gods to the hidden island of Themyscira in penance. A dissenting faction leaves under the leadership of Queen Hippolyta’s sister, Antiope. WW #1, #33 <8.89>, #90 <9.94>, WWSF #1 <3.98>. The notation in History of the DCU that Antiope’s group fought in the Trojan War [above] appears to be one of that book’s many anachronisms, but it could be true if the event predates the exile and schism.
  [c. 970 BCE] Solomon (son of King David) rises to the Kingship of a unified Israel. Shazam, seeking to collect less-corruptible powers for a future champion, begins with Solomon’s widely-famed wisdom. PoS #12 <2.96>. (The “unified kingdom” of Solomon’s reign, as described in the Bible, is historically questionable, but clearly valid in the DCU.)
  8th Century BCE  
  [776 BCE] The first Olympic Games are held in Greece. Meanwhile, the wrath of the Spectre is once more unleashed on Earth. Historical record; also DCHSF #1—which gives no explanation or details regarding the latter event; we can only speculate that it may be related to the former.
  [c. 750 BCE] The bard Homer sets down the story of the Trojan War in a series of epic poems, as civilization begins to renew itself in the Aegean. Historical record; date is very approximate. No known comics connection, but it’s relevant to an overall understanding of the period.
  6th Century BCE  
  [594-546 BCE] Solon, Chief Magistrate of Athens, creates a new unified code of laws and introduces a new form of democracy to Athens. He is also the sage who, c. 559 BCE, is said to have the learned the tale of Atlantis while traveling in Egypt (see 9600 BCE). Historical record; also Atlantis Chronicles #7 <9.90>.
  5th Century BCE  
  [490-479 BCE] Athens achieves victory in the Persian Wars, and rises to its greatest heights of culture.
[469-399 BCE] The great philosopher Socrates lives and teaches in Athens, revolutionizing human thought.
[431-404 BCE] Athens is brought low in the Peloponnesian Wars against its former ally, Sparta.
Historical record. Again, no direct connections to comics, but important to understanding the arc of historical developments.
  4th Century BCE  
  [c. 360 BCE] Socrates’ student, Plato (427-347 BCE), writes the dialogues that tell the world the legends of Atlantis (see 9600 BCE) passed down from Solon.
[384-322 BCE] Plato’s student Aristotle lives and studies in Greece—and tutors Alexander of Macedon.
Historical record; again, included to provide context for events chronicled above and below.
  [334-323 BCE] Alexander the Great (356-323 BCE) strikes out from Macedon, conquering and spreading Hellenic influence through Persia and into India until his untimely death. In particular…
[Oct 1, 331 BCE] Alexander fights the pivotal Battle of Arbela against Darius of Persia—and nearly loses, thanks to the time-travelling interference of the villain Per Degaton (see 1947), until the Justice Society of America intervenes to set history back on track.
Historical record, abetted by Young All-Stars Annual #1 <1988> (confirming events originally chronicled in All-Star Comics #35 <6-7.47>).
  3rd Century BCE  
  [244 BCE] Vandal Savage is sold into slavery in northern Europe. JSAC #10
  1st Century BCE  
  [75 BCE] Vandal Savage faces an incarnation of Resurrection Man as a gladiator in the Roman Colosseum. DCVSF #1. Note that in our reality, the Colosseum was not actually erected until 80 CE, although it was preceded by smaller arenas. (The Roman empire was well established, however, having conquered much of the Mediterranean region in the two centuries following Alexander’s death.)
  [c. 49-44 BCE] Gaius Julius Caesar (102-44 BCE) wins a civil war and serves as Dictator, cementing Rome’s transformation from Republic to Empire. Historical record; also WWho v2, as Vandal Savage claims to have been Caesar. (If so, he presumably faked his death very convincingly.) More recently, on the other hand, Savage has claimed to have been Caesar’s adopted son Octavian, aka Augustus [Salvation Run #4 <4.08>]. We really have no way of knowing how many of Savage’s historical claims are empty boasts.
  The mystic Homo Magi (see 1 Million BCE) relocate to the Hidden City in the mountains of Anatolia, guided by acolytes of Dr. Mist. SO v2 #27; (JLofA #165 <4.79>). Date approximate (in the Hidden City's first appearance this is only described as “about 2,000 years ago, in the early days of the Roman Empire”).
  GL Yalan Gur of Sector 2814 becomes corrupted by his power, and is punished by the Guardians; falling to Earth in defeat, he fuses with a stray fragment of the Starheart (see 4.0004 Billion BCE). GL v3 #19 <12.91>; GLCQ #7 <Win.93>. Exact date uncertain. The meteorite that results from this fusion will pass through many hands and ultimately grant power, centuries later, to Alan Scott [see 1939].
  [c. 7-4 BCE] Jesus is born in Judaea. The Spectre is relegated to limbo, as his heavenly masters shun vengeance in favor of forgiveness. Spectre v3 #0. The exact date is uncertain, but the traditional “AD One” birthdate determined by monk Dionysius Exiguus in the 6th Century is certainly mistaken, as this must precede the death of Herod the Great in 4 BCE.
History Notes and References
  11th Century   ↑ top
  [c. 1001 CE] Jon, the Viking Prince, explores North America as far as Minnesota in search of adventure… and encounters the assassin Cheshire, escaped from the future, and Black Canary, in pursuit of her. Birds of Prey #28-30 <4-6.01>. Date approximate; Jon refers to knowing Leif Ericsson (credited with discovering North America in 1000 CE, dubbing it Vinland) as “a thief.” Jon is youthful and vital, though old for his time.
  [1066 CE] As William of Normandy conquers England, the Manhunter cult (see 3 Billion BCE) begins to infiltrate Earth. SO v2 #22. Vandal Savage claims to have aided William, per WWho v1 #25.
  [c. 1095-99 CE] During the First Crusade, the influential Priory de Sion is established near Jerusalem. (Holy Blood, Holy Grail, Michael Baigent et al., ©1983 [source for general secret-society related info]; see 1114.)
  12th Century  
  [c. 1114] The Knights of the Temple of Solomon, aka the Knights Templar, are founded in the Holy Land—a society of warrior monks, and an outgrowth of the Priory de Sion. TM #1 <2.90> [source for DC-specific secret-society info]; (date from HBHG; see 1095-99).
  [1127-28] The Templars are officially established in Europe, bringing with them mystic wisdom acquired from Hasan Y Sabah’s society of Hashishim. They quickly accumulate great wealth and influence, becoming bankers to the nobility throughout Europe. TM #1; (date from HBHG). The Templars (along with the Priory and possibly the Hashishim; details remain unclear) are outgrowths of Vandal Savage’s long-hidden conspiracy, the Children of the Light [see 43,000 BCE].
  [1187-88] Jerusalem is lost to the Saracens under the sultan Saladin, prompting a Third Crusade… and precipitating a split between the Priory de Sion and the Templars. The Priory, increasingly secretive, begins operating under other names, including “l’Ordre de la Rose-Croix” (aka Rosicrucians; see 1615). Historical record; (HBHG). (The Second Crusade, in 1147-49, had accomplished nothing. Meanwhile Islam regrouped under new leadership, with great success.) The nature of Vandal Savage’s influence in the immediate wake of this political falling-out remains unclear (note that he may be absent in England or Asia at this time; see 1190-94, below, then 1206). However, he is involved again in later centuries: see 1307, 1464, 1505, and 1770, among other entries.
  The Order of St. Dumas is established as a splinter organization from the Knights Templar, even more secretive and arcane, and creates the Knights of Azrael to be its “avenging angels.” Sword of Azrael mini-series <10.92-1.93>. Specific date and reason remain uncertain, but it must precede the Order of the Pure, below. (WWho v2 says it came into existence “in the 14th century during the Crusades,” but that was always impossible as the Crusades ended in the 13th century (from the Fourth in 1202 to the Eighth in 1270, for completeness’ sake).)
  [1190] The Order of the Pure splinters from the Order of St. Dumas, even more secretive and arcane, to protect the mysterious “Suit of Sorrows.” Detective Comics #842 <5.08>. The Suit eventually comes into the possession of Rā’s al Ghūl.
  [c. 1190-94] Robin Hood and his merry men take to the greenwood to protect the peasants of England while King Richard I (the Lion-Hearted) is away on the Third Crusade, leaving England in the hands of corrupt officials under his brother, Prince John. History of the DCU; (1st DC app. B&B v1 #5 <4-5.56>; also Robin Hood Tales #7-14 <2.57-4.58>). Date according to tradition (the earliest known Robin Hood tales only date to the 14th Century, and place him under King Edward II—but as with King Arthur, the story evolved over time, and the DCU version represents the more mature legend). This Robin Hood was originally Robert, Earl of Huntington (but perhaps aka Robin of Locksley [per Arsenal #3 <12.98>, in which Vandal Savage claims to have known him]). Alleged dates for Robin’s death range from 1198 to 1247.
  [1199] On the outskirts of Jerusalem, Etrigan tortures and murders a cardinal, and rises in the ranks of Hell. Demon #0
  13th Century  
  [c. 1202] The first Brother Blood rises to power on the Mediterranean isle of Zandia, establishing the Church of Blood. History of the DCU, New Titans Annual #2 <8.86>; (1st app. New Teen Titans #21 <7.82>). Zandia was originally described as a Baltic island (in NTT #14 <12.81>), but this was revised as of Guide to the DCU 2000 SF #1 <3.00>.
  [1206-1227] Genghis Khan unites Mongolia [1206] and conquers China [1211-15], devastates the Near East [1216], and terrorizes Russia and Eastern Europe [1222], forging the largest land empire in history. He is also followed briefly by a time-lost Shining Knight. WWho v2: Genghis Khan was actually Vandal Savage. We may note, with speculative interest, that his earliest battles occurred c. 1190—just after the Sion/Templar schism. Re: Sir Justin: S&S #0, #9 [see 1948]; (orig. JLofA v1 #100-102).
  The physician to a minor sultan in North Africa discovers the mysterious life-restoring and -extending powers of the Lazarus Pit… and begins life anew as Rā’s al Ghūl, the Demon’s Head. Batman: Birth of the Demon GN <1992>. Date imprecise, but described as “close to… the time of the Crusades.” It must precede the reign of Batu Khan noted immediately below.
  [c. 1250] Rā’s al Ghūl attempts unsuccessfully to sieze the Holy Grail (see 980 CE) as it’s being smuggled back to Europe from the court of Batu Khan. Batman: The Chalice <99>. Date approximate; Batu Khan (a grandson of Genghis) ruled much of Asia c. 1235-55. This is consistent with legends suggesting the Grail was “lost” in the aftermath of the notorious Albigensian Crusade that devastated France c. 1209-44.
  [1273] Lost in the Desert of Lop while traveling to Kublai Khan’s China, the young Marco Polo (age 18) encounters several… unusual… fellow explorers. Sandman #39 <7.92>. The desert is one of the “soft places” [seen again in Sandman #74 <1.96>], where time swirls upon itself. Polo meets Rustichello of Pisa, his own later chronicler; Fiddler’s Green, on a respite from the Dreaming; and Morpheus himself, newly freed from captivity [see 1988].
  [1274] The former nymph Nimue (see 6th C.) has served for twelve years as Oracle of Xanadu, Kublai Khan’s summer capital. When the Polo expedition arrives, however, a visit from the Phantom Stranger leads her to expose a conspiracy against the Europeans that forces her into exile. Marco Polo is granted a mysterious emerald lantern as a gift (see 1st Century BCE), with which he eventually returns to Europe. Mme Xanadu v2 #3-4 <10-11.08>. This is her second meeting with the Stranger, his first with her; note that it has actually been more than “nearly four hundred years” since their encounter in Britain. The lantern will, of course, empower Alan Scott many centuries later [see 1939].
  14th Century  
  [1307-14] The Templars are persecuted as heretics and officially dissolved; the order survives underground in Scotland and elsewhere. Its influence continues to the present through successor organizations including the Freemasons (prominent from the 17th Century forward) and the Bavarian Illuminati (18th Century). TM #1; (dates and details from HBHG). Vandal Savage continues to exert influence, behind the scenes, through the centuries that follow. (Note that our superstitions regarding Friday the 13th derive from the date the Templar persecution began: Friday, Oct. 13, 1307!)
  [c. 1330] Birth of the famous alchemist Nicholas Flamel, an ancestor of Zatara (see 1938) and Zatanna (see 1992/Yr4). Date from historical record—according to which he also died in 1415, but in the DCU he remains alive [per JLA Annual #2 <10.98>]. Z&Z ancestry: SO v2 #27.
  [1348-50] The Black Plague ravages Europe. In Krakow, Rā’s al Ghūl again nearly acquires the Grail. Plague from historical record. Rā’s and the Grail from Batman: The Chalice.
  [1389] English peasant Hob Gadling calls death “a mug’s game” in unexpected company… and is granted immortality by Death herself. Sandman #13 <2.90>
  The Order of St. Dumas (like the Templars before it) is condemned by the Church, and goes into hiding. WWho v2; “toward the end of the 14th century.”
  15th Century  
  A time-lost Crimson Avenger, his memory addled, briefly rules a tribe in Aztec Mexico. S&S #0, #9; (orig. JLofA v1 #100-102). Exact date very uncertain; this could easily be any time from Tenochtitlan’s founding c. 1325 to Cortez’ conquest in 1519.
  [1407-33] The eunuch Muslim admiral Zheng He (aka Cheng Ho, aka Sinbad) leads a Chinese fleet on seven legendary voyages to over 20 nations, beginning—and ending—Imperial China’s age of exploration. Historical record, included for context (and obvious story potential). Scholarly speculation posits that Zheng’s fleet may even have discovered the Americas c. 1421 (see, e.g., the book 1421 by Gavin Menzies, ©2002).
  [1453] The Hundred Years’ War between England and France (sporadic since 1337) sputters to an end, as feudal Europe begins to stabilize into nation-states. Historical record, included for context. This war included Henry V’s storied victory at Agincourt in 1415; also the legendary actions at Orléans in 1429 of Joan d’Arc, whose DCU status remains woefully unexplored.
  [May 31, 1453] Constantinople falls to the Ottoman Turks, bringing an end to the Byzantine Empire. Historical record, included for context.
  The native American adventurer known as Strong Bow roams pre-Columbian North America. History of the DCU; (1st app. All-Star Western #58 <4-5.51>). Specific date(s) remain ambiguous.
  The Iroquois Flying Stag acquires the powers and longevity of Saganowahna, aka “Super-Chief.” History of the DCU, ST v2 #85 <4.89>, Adv. of Superman Annual #9 <97>; (1st app. All-Star Western #117 <2-3.61>). Specific date(s) remain ambiguous.
  [1464] On his first major trip through time, Walker Gabriel visits Renaissance Florence, and meets Cosimo de’ Medici, the Countess Fiorella della Ravenna, and the immortal Jason Blood (see 517, 1199). Chronos #3 <5.98>. This has apparently become apocryphal (a deleted Hypertimeline) now that Gabriel has remade his past and become a “man out of time”—per Chronos #10 <1.99> [likewise see 1873]. Cosimo (d. 1464) established the Medici family empire, giving birth to the Renaissance—e.g., by establishing Europe’s first research library, in San Marco, in 1444. His grandson Lorenzo expanded the family’s influence still further, and was a patron to many artists, including Leonardo da Vinci. There is fan speculation regarding possible influence on the Medicis by Vandal Savage.
  [1467] In Aragon, after five years of effort, a collection of alchemists dubbing themselves “El Ciento” discover a source of immortality—but at the cost of emotional vampirism. Centuries later, one of the survivors—Bjorn Gustavsen, under the identity of “Victor Swann”—will bring ruin to Metropolis’s Suicide Slum, launch the criminal gang “The 100,” and come into conflict with Black Lightning (see 1995/Yr7). Black Lightning: Year One #4 <4.09>.
  [1476] The central European despot Vlad the Impaler becomes the undead Count Dracula (see 1890). Historical date of death. Confirmed canonical in DCU as of Superman v2 #180 <5.01>. Vlad Dracula (b. 1431) ruled Wallachia intermittently from 1448.
  [Nov 1, 1478] Spanish monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella establish the Inquisition, institutionalizing the persecution of heretics. Historical record. It is soon endorsed by the Pope, and Dominican monk Tomas de Torquemada takes over as Grand Inquisitor in 1483. It lasts (in Spain) until 1820.
  [1487-93] Under the name Novia, Madame Xanadu (see 1274) lives in Spain, narrowly avoiding the Inquisition. Mme Xanadu v2 #11-15 <7-11.09>
  [1489] Hob Gadling meets with Dream again on the centenary of their first encounter, and discloses that he has taken up the new trade of “printing.” Sandman #13. (Movable type was invented by Johann Gutenberg in Mainz, Germany, c. 1455, and was in use in England by 1485.)
  [1492] Christopher Columbus discovers the West Indies, beginning the rush to explore the new world. Historical record.
  16th Century  
  Englishman Andrew Bennett becomes a vampire. WWho v2; (1st app. House of Mystery #290 <3.81>). Exact date uncertain.
  [c. 1505-07] Leonardo da Vinci paints the timeless Mona Lisa… at the behest of Vandal Savage. Final Night #2<11.96>. Savage’s motives remain in question, but note that Leonardo (b. 1452) was a devoted student of esoterica and “secret societies” (longtime tools of Savage), and purportedly himself a Sion Grand Master (HBHG). Leonardo is also an ancestor of Zatara and Zatanna (as are Nicholas Flamel, born c. 1330, and Nostradamus, b. 1503): SO v2 #27.
  [c. 1510] The spacefaring Coluan entity known as Brainiac embeds himself in a computerized bio-shell, the better to serve his purpose of assimilating the knowledge of all intelligent life. Action #868 <10.08>. Date approximate. As of 2010/Yr22, Brainiac tells Superman that he has “not ventured outside of my bio-shell in five [centuries].”
  [Oct 31, 1517] Catholic friar Martin Luther posts his “95 Theses” criticizing the Church, thereby inaugurating the Protestant Reformation. Historical record. Otherwise neutral historical context like this is especially relevant during these centuries, given the known behind-the-scenes influence of Vandal Savage.
  [c. 1560s] Rā’s al Ghūl, exploring South America in the wake of the Spanish Conquistadors, encounters a fellow immortal known as “Talon.” Batman Chronicles #6 <Aut.96>
  [Sep 1566] Sulieman I, “the Magnificent,” dies while campaigning in Transylvania—thanks to the actions of Etrigan the Demon—and the Ottoman Empire begins its long decline. JLA Annual #4 <2000>. Under Sulieman, the Ottoman Empire was the best-run in Europe. According to this story, Merlin was allied with Sulieman’s court, and hid an enchanted scimitar during its final days. [This was probably “Version C” of the many Merlins; see 6th Century.]
  [1572?] In the wake of an astrologically ominous supernova, the young sorceress Citrina leads a band of Earth’s last mystics to colonize the other-dimensional Gemworld. WWho v2; (orig. Amethyst v1 #8 <12.83>). This is described as a time when faeries were still around [see below], but otherwise no more specific than “centuries” ago. Historical supernovae visible to the naked eye are relatively rare, though, and fan speculation has associated it with the one observed by Tycho Brahe in 1572. It could be earlier (1181, 1054, or 1006), but not later.
  The Faerie peoples leave Earth for another realm, carving out for themselves an isolated corner of Hell’s dimension. History of the DCU, Sandman #13, #19 <7.90>, BoM #37 <6.97>, and other sources. Specific date uncertain, but it must fall between the events chronicled for 1389 and 1593, given information in those two stories. As entries below demonstrate, a new age of art, science, and exploration is beginning to sweep Europe, leaving little room for magic.
  Jon Valor roams the seas in service to England as the Black Pirate. History of the DCU, Starman v2 #31 <6.97>; (1st app. Action #23 <4.40>). Exact dates uncertain, but he is said to have been a rival of Sir John Hawkins [b. 1532] and Sir Francis Drake [b. 1540], both of whom helped defeat the Spanish Armada [see 1588, below]. [See also 1648.]
  [Jul 31-Aug 8, 1588] Vandal Savage helps lead the Spanish Armada against the vastly-outnumbered British Royal Navy, only to meet with defeat.

WWho v1 #25; date from historical record. Savage went by “Vandalo Salvaje” at thsi time.

  [1589] Hob Gadling meets with Dream once again, relating a century of good fortune. On the same occasion, Dream meets and makes a bargain with the young playwright Will Shakespeare, who longs for the talent “to give men dreams that will live on.” Sandman #13. Shakespeare was only 25 in 1589, and not long arrived in London. His early work was unremarkable, his talent not yet evident. This would soon change. (Note that the historical specificity of this date, and its 100-year anniversaries, prevents Morpheus’ modern-day awakening from ”sliding” past 1989.)
  Melmoth of the Sheeda (see 8,000 BCE) discovers the time-lost Undry Cauldron in North America’s Slaughter Swamp, and infuses his body with its waters of rebirth. SS: Frankenstein #2 <3.06>. Date approximate, but must precede the events just below.
  [Summer 1590] England’s first North American colony, at Roanoke, Virginia, disappears without a trace. (In fact, infected by Melmoth’s bloodline, the colonists have retreated underground.) Colony and disappearance from historical record; reason from SS: Klarion #3-4 <10, 12.05>. The lost colonists later become known as the Croatoans, from a cryptic word found carved at their abandoned settlement.
  [June 1593] Shakespeare’s troupe performs A Midsummer Night’s Dream for Faerie visitors. Sandman #19. This is the first of two plays he writes for Morpheus, his part of the bargain struck in 1589.
  17th Century  
  [1607] English Captain John Smith (1579-1631) helps found the Jamestown colony in Virginia. Seeking aid from local tribes, he has his life saved by the young Algonquin girl Pocahontas (1595-1617). Historical record. Hawkman # 18 <10.03> establishes that Smith was an incarnation of Khufu/the Hawk Avatar [see 13th Century BCE]. We can infer that Pocahontas may have been an incarnation of Chay-ara, as well.
  [Nov 1610-Jan 1611] Retired to Stratford, Shakespeare writes The Tempest, the coda to his career… and to his agreement with Dream. Sandman #75 <3.96>
  [1615] Anonymous pamphlets begin appearing “revealing” the existence of the secret society of the Rosicrucians. Historical record; (HBHG). They were allegedly written by one Johann Valentin Andrea, himself purportedly a Grand Master of the Priory de Sion. The “Rosicrucian” name later became rather overdetermined, appropriated by many latter-day pretender organizations.
  [1618-1648] The Thirty Years’ War wracks the continent, reshapes the German states, and institutionalizes the Protestant Reformation. Historical record. Many scientific and esoteric thinkers fled the continent for England [see 1662], and found refuge in Masonic and/or Rosicrucian circles.
  [Apr 1625] D’Artagnan first joins the legendary Three Musketeers serving under France’s Louis XIII, combatting the schemes of Cardinal Richelieu. History of the DCU [which carelessly places them during the Crusades!]. They serve together for several more decades. (See the novel by Alexandre Dumas (1844), one of many noteworthy literary annexations into the DCU [see also 1707, 1757, 1816, 1827, 1866, 1881, 1888, 1890, 1894, 1903, 1909, 1933, 1936].) (Side note: pre-Crisis, D’Artagnan met Superman and Batman in World’s Finest v1 #82 <5-6.56>. He was also shown to be a prior incarnation of Travis Morgan, per Warlord #27 <11.79>—as was the Arthurian-era Sir Lancelot!)
  [1634] Ten years after founding a trading post on Manhattan, Dutch settlers found another outpost on the island that will one day be the core of Metropolis. (Atlas of the DC Universe <1990>.) Possibly apocryphal; this is not always a reliable source, and no corroborating evidence appears to be available.
  [c. 1635] Explorer Jon Logerquist founds the village that will grow into Gotham City. ST v2 #86 <5.89>. He was working for either the Swedish or the Dutch, depending on which reference you believe [this one vs. Batman: The Cult #1-4 <8-11.88> et al.].
  [1641] Fero of the Carib Indians, operating as the buccaneer Captain Fear, rescues time-traveler Walker Gabriel from drowning. Spectre v3 #40-41 <4-5.96>, Chronos #1 [text page], DCHSF #1; (1st app. Adv. #425 <12-1.73>). Exact dates of Captain Fear’s career are otherwise uncertain.
  [1648] The small town Port O’Souls (later Opal City) is settled along the North American seacoast. Jon Valor, formerly the Black Pirate (see 16th Century), is unjustly executed there. Starman SF #1 <4.98>. The location is ambiguous; early references hint at a mid-Atlantic location, but later stories suggest the Gulf Coast. The date is questionable, too, given Jon Valor's lifespan; twenty years earlier might be more plausible. However, Jon was reportedly abducted to the present once [see 1996/Yr8] (JLofA 159-60 <10-11.78>), and if he were returned later than his departure point this might be kept as it stands. Jon thereafter haunted Opal as a ghost: Starman v2 #31.
  [1648] In the Ukraine, cossack Pyotr Konstantin is possessed by the cancer god M’Ngalah. His soul is rescued by his descendant John Constantine (and his allies). Trenchcoat Brigade #1-4 <3-6.99> . The allies are the Phantom Stranger, Dr. Occult, and Mr. E.
  [Sep 11, 1649] Harry Constantine (ancestor of John) serves in the English Civil War under Cromwell—in Ireland, at the Drogheda Massacre. Hellblazer #62 <1.93>
  [1659] The immortal mage Arion (see 48,000 BCE) is living as a vicomte in Paris… when he experiences a prophecy that draws him to the future and an encounter with Superman (see 2009/Yr21). Superman #655 <10.06>
  [1660] On the advice of Lucifer himself, Jason Blood (and thus Etrigan) travels to America seeking new fortunes. Demon #0
  [1662] The Royal Society is founded in London (in the aftermath of the restoration of the monarchy in 1660). It will be home to such scientific luminaries as Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton. Historical record. The Royal Society was also a haven for esoteric thinkers [see 1618-48, above]—a category that also included Boyle and Newton, both purportedly Sion Grand Masters (HBHG). Again, the hand of Vandal Savage might speculatively be seen manipulating historical events, as Europe enters the period of dramatic new thinking known as the Enlightenment.
  [1665-66] London suffers a devastating recurrence of the Plague, ended only when the city is purged by fire. Historical record. The plague is witnessed by plant elemental “Jack in the Green” (formerly Alf Oldland): ST v2 #47 <4.86>, Neil Gaiman’s Midnight Days <99>.
  [c. 1688] Orion, son of Darkseid, is born on Apokolips. New Gods SF #1 [“310 years ago” as of publication—now 2003/Yr15, but as with Darkseid above there seems no reason to match that “sliding” in this century].
  [1689] Hob Gadling meets Dream once again, revealing with dismay that he has “hated every second of the last eighty years”—yet he is not ready to die. Sandman #13
  [1695] Destruction of the Endless abdicates his role, fearing for humanity’s future… and wishing to focus his energies on creation for a time. Sandman #49
  [c. 1697] Scott Free, the future Mr. Miracle, is born on New Genesis. New Gods SF #1 [“301 years ago”]. Again, dated relative to publication, without “sliding.”
  [c. 1698] Izaya becomes Highfather of New Genesis, and Darkseid succeeds his mother Heggra as ruler of Apokolips; the two trade sons in “The Pact.” New Gods SF #1 [“300 years ago”]; (New Gods #7 <2-3.72>). Again, no sliding.
  18th Century  
  [c. 1700] Keith Everet, Earl of Strethmere, is killed. His spirit will return as the Grim Ghost (see 1941). SO v2 #42 <7.89>; (1st app. Sensation Comics #1 <1.42>; originally the Gay Ghost).
  [c. 1700] Martian philosophy leads Darkseid to conceptualize the “Anti-Life Equation” as the object of his quest for power, and agents of Apokolips attack Mars. A young J’onn J’onzz helps lead the defense. MM #33-34 <8-9.01>. Date approximate; Darkseid already rules Apokolips [see 1698], but civilization still thrives on Mars [see 1715].
  [1707] English explorer Lemuel Gulliver encounters the floating island he calls Laputa (in actuality Basilia, a surviving outpost of Atlantis). Alluded to in Aquaman v5 #22 <7.96> (confirming events from Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels (1726); date from the book). Gulliver’s wide-ranging voyages spanned 1699-1715. We may accept his existence in the DCU, but given the extraordinary and satirical nature of his chronicle, little about it can be taken at face value.
  [c. 1710] Brainiac (see 1510, 1937) subsides into stasis-sleep, while his automated ship continues to assimilate and destroy civilizations. Action #868. Date approximate. As of 2010/Yr22, Brainiac tells Superman that he has “not awoken in over three centuries.”
  [1710-12] A black teenager named Linton Midnite runs a confidence operation in New York. Papa Midnite #1 <4.05>
  [after 1715] The evil Ma’alefa’ak, brother of J’onn J’onzz, unleashes a telepathic flame-plague that destroys the ancient race and civilization of Mars, including J’onn’s family. Devastated, J’onn wanders aimlessly… until he is unexpectedly pulled to Earth by a teleportation beam (see 1955). MM #0 <10.98>, et seq. [most recent retelling]. Date very ambiguous; it could be much later—but not earlier. Constrained based upon J’onn’s comment in JL Task Force #28 <10.95> (i.e., set late in 2002/Yr14) to the interstellar bounty hunter Glenn Gammeron that he had not seen him in “287 years, ten months.”
  [1718] Vandal Savage ends a succesful career as Blackbeard the pirate, sending a crewman to die in his place. JSAC #11 <6.06>
  [1731-1740] Hugh Constantine (ancestor of John) leaves London to seek his fortune and sets up a pub in Manhattan, but fails to prosper. Papa Midnite #3 <6.05>
  [1738] Vandal Savage fights an incarnation of Resurrection Man in the waters off Hispaniola. DCVSF #1
  [Apr 1741] Linton Midnite, now the immortal mystic known as Papa Midnite, provokes an anti-slavery revolt in Manhattan. Papa Midnite #3-5 <6-8.05>
  [c. 1741-1743] “Mad Hettie” is born in England, beginning a very long life. Sandman #3 <3.89>, The Dreaming #7 <12.96>. Hettie describes herself as 247 in the former, 253 in the latter.
  [1743] Birth of the famous occultist Count Cagliostro (Guiseppe Balsamo), an ancestor of Zatara and Zatanna. Date from historical record—according to which he also died in 1795, but in the DCU he remains alive [per JLA Annual #2 <10.98>]. Z&Z ancestry: SO v2 #27.
  [c. 1748] Big Barda is born on Apokolips. New Gods SF #1 [“250 years ago”]. Again, no sliding seems called for.
  [May 23, 1751] A Venetian count seals off himself, his friends and confidantes on an island, safe from time—and Death—until 2003. Sandman: Endless Nights GN
  [c. 1757] The superhumanly expert woodsman and scout Natty Bumppo (aka Deerslayer, aka Hawkeye, aka Long-Rifle, aka Pathfinder, aka Leather-Stocking) is active on the early American frontier during the French and Indian War (1756-63). Starman v2 #68 <8.00> makes this another public-domain literary annexation into the DCU [see, e.g., 1625, 1933] with a reference to “the private journals of Natty Bumppo”—albeit an odd reference, as the character was illiterate. Originally from James Fenimore Cooper’s five novels known as “The Leather-Stocking Tales,” the most famous of which is Last of the Mohicans (1826), set in this year, when Natty is about 40. (Side note: I heartily recommend to all readers Mark Twain’s hilarious essay “Fenimore Cooper’s Literary Offenses” !)
  [1764] Thomas Jefferson and certain colleagues attempt to summon a demon, which becomes the spirit of Gotham City. Batman #452-454 <8-9.90>. This perhaps presages a rather more successful later attempt by the Founding Fathers: see 1776.
  [1770] The time-travelling Dan Hunter, cousin of Rip (see 2000/Yr13), fails to prevent Vandal Savage’s scheme to replace George Washington with an impostor, Adam Weisshaupt of the Bavarian Illuminati (see 1776). Hunter stays in the era, working alongside the frontiersman Tomahawk. TM #4 <5.90>; (T&DH origin/1st app. Star-Spangled Comics #69 <6.47>; note that this tale is not consistent with Dan Hunter’s pre-Crisis personal history). The “surrogate Washington” scheme is a mainstay of Illuminati conspiracy theories; that it is canonical in the DCU seems incredible but is apparently true.
  [Jan 1775] Nyssa Raatko, daughter of Rā’s al Ghūl, is born to a Russian peasant in St. Petersburg. Batman: Death & The Maidens #6 <3.04>, #9 <8.04>.
  [1775] The Daily Planet, a great metropolitan newspaper, is founded in Metropolis. ZHTL*; World of Metropolis #1 <8.88>. The ZH Timeline’s date of 1826 is in error.
  [May 1, 1776] Adam Weisshaupt of Bavaria (see 1770) officially founds the Secret Order of Illuminati, its proclaimed mission to spread and promote the ideals of the political and philosophical Enlightenment that has already swept much of 18th-Century Europe. Based on the historical record, the Illuminati was short-lived, suppressed by local authorities and defunct by 1785. In the DCU, however, it was clearly part of a larger web of secret societies. In character it was secular and rationalistic, in contrast to the Rosicrucians' Hermetic mysticism (with Freemasonry falling somewhere in between); however, one may surmise that all of these divergent-yet-interwoven strands were tools of Vandal Savage in various ways.
  [Jul 1776] Destiny presents the founding fathers with the image for the Seal of the United States. Dreaming #6 <11.96>. Thomas Jefferson later passes the original image to Mad Hettie for safekeeping.
  [Jul 1776] The founding fathers create a mystic avatar of the newly-formed United States. He will pass through many manifestations before becoming known, in the 1870s, as Uncle Sam (see 1941). Spectre v3 #37-38 <1-2.96>, superseding SO v2 #19 <10.87>. He first incarnates as the Minuteman.
  [1776-1781] The Revolutionary War period brings prominence to the Minuteman (above) as well as other adventurers, including Tomahawk (see 1770) and the costumed Miss Liberty (Bess Lynn). ZHTL [“late 1700s”]; (ML 1st app. Tomahawk #81 <7-8.62>). Note also the existence of genuine historical frontiersmen such as Daniel Boone and Simon Kenton.
  [1779] American patriot Darius Wayne (ancestor of Bruce) fights a holding action to keep Gotham Town from the British (who took it over in the 1670s and have occupied it through most of the war). ST v2 #86. After the war, Wayne is rewarded for his heroism with the plot of land that will become his hereditary estate. He also founds Gotham’s Robinson Park in 1782 [as seen on plaques in ’Tec #775 <12.02> and elsewhere]. Meanwhile, Gotham becomes home to Tomahawk [see 1800]. Any relation between Darius and General “Mad Anthony” Wayne, a genuine historical figure of the same period, remains purely speculative.
  [1779] Tomahawk, Dan Hunter, and Miss Liberty are briefly drawn into the 20th Century by the time-twisting events of the Crisis. A-SSq #54 <2.86>
  [1781] Miss Liberty dies on a mission to rescue the Liberty Bell. A-SSq #61 <9.86>
  [1785] Vandal Savage fights and kills an incarnation of the Resurrection Man at Savage Manor, in England. DCVSF #1
  [1785] Johanna Constantine (ancestor of John) is retained by His Majesty’s government to secure an artifact of power (Pandora’s Box; see 8200 BCE) from a sunken vessel—and regains her family’s title in return, but loses her daughter. Lady Constantine #1-4 <2-5.03>
  [1786] Lady Constantine lurks behind the scenes as a freelance covert agent, stealing papers from the Russian Imperial Court. Sandman #29 <8.91>, mentioned in passing.
  [1786-89] Madame Xanadu (see 1487-93) lives in the French imperial court at Versailles, attending Marie Antoinette, but leaves Paris on the eve of the Revolution. Mme Xanadu #5 <12.08>. Her time at court begins when Marie has been queen for “a dozen years” (since 1774), and ends on Jul 14, 1789, the night the Bastille is stormed.
  [1789] Hob Gadling reports to Dream that he has prospered again in the last century—in the slave trade. Lady Johanna Constantine bursts in on the meeting, and encounters the pair. Sandman #13; Johanna Constantine’s 1st appearance.
  [1789] Chronos (Walker Gabriel) sees Rā’s al Ghūl resurrected in Africa. Chronos #1 [text page], DCHSF #1. The details remain unchronicled.
  [1789] Nyssa (see 1775) tracks down her father, Rā’s al Ghūl, and becomes his protégé. B:D&M #6
  [Nov 17, 1791] In France, Lady Elisabeth Saint-Marie, riding incognito as the first Mademoiselle Marie, saves Comte de Nevers and his family from assassins. Checkmate v2 #21-22<2-3.08>. Note a slight anachronism: the guillotine, mentioned in this scene and routinely associated with The Terror, wasn’t actually introduced until spring of 1792.
  [Fall, 1793] Madame Xanadu returns to Paris and is briefly imprisoned. She summons Death, who grants her freedom from her touch and restores her powers. Mme Xanadu #5-6 <12.08-1.09>. She visits Marie Antoinette on her last days (she was beheaded on Oct 16), alongside the Phantom Stranger. Prior to this point Mme Xanadu’s immortality relied on potions of her own devising.
  [Jul 24-26, 1794] At the behest of Dream, Johanna Constantine infiltrates revolutionary France under the Terror and retrieves the head of Orpheus (see 15th C. BCE), only days before Robespierre is deposed. Sandman #29. Her captors say she is 32 in this story, but may be in error; The Dreaming #4-7 <9-12.96> establishes her lifespan as Oct. 25, 1760 – Oct. 25, 1859 (her 99th birthday).
  [1794] Mortally wounded while fighting alongside Rā’s in the Sudan, Nyssa is saved by a life-extending Lazarus Pit. B:D&M #4 <1.04>
  [c. 1798] Scott Free escapes Apokolips for Earth. New Gods SF #1 [“200 years ago”]. Again, without timeline sliding.
History Notes and References
  19th Century   ↑ top
  [Jan 1, 1800] The time-travelling Swamp Thing (see 517 CE, 1872, 2001/Yr13) learns that Dan Hunter died “tied to a tree—skinned like a varmint!” Tomahawk, disgusted with life in Gotham, decamps for the wilderness with his Indian lover Moon Fawn, the mother-to-be of Hawk (see 1820s). ST v2 #86. The story reveals much of Gotham’s history to this point. Darius Wayne, for example [see 1779], had begun construction of Wayne Manor… but did not live to occupy it. Jason Blood is shown to be serving as an Admiral in the Royal Navy, and a slave trader.
  [c. 1800] Laham of Scylla, GL of Sector 2814, bequeaths his power ring to Waverly Sayre of Earth. GLCQ #2 <Aut.92>. He was once assumed to be Earth's first GL—but see 650 CE.
  Nyssa leaves Rā’s al Ghūl to seek her own path. (See 1945.) B:D&M #3 <12.03>
  Young Jim Craddock and his unmarried mother are put out onto England’s cold streets by his father, a “gentleman.” When his mother dies, Jim soon learns to steal to survive, and has a cursed future foretold by an old Gypsy woman. As an adolescent he encounters ghostly highwaymen on the Great North Road, and takes after their career. JSA v2 #83-86 <5-8.06>. Date approximate; it is set “in the days when good King George [III] was mad, and the Prince Regent none too wise,” which narrows the range to 1810-1820. Another reminiscence says the legendary highwayman Dick Turpin “was gone a hundred years in me day”—a slight exaggeration, as Trupin actually died in 1739.
  [Apr 6] Leading a British army under Wellington, Rā’s al Ghūl devastates Badajoz, Spain, in fury at having again narrowly missed procuring the Holy Grail. Batman: The Chalice. Date and incident from historical record; the town was subjected to two days of pillaging after the final success of the long and bloody British siege against the French defenders. (I had previously posited Rā’s leading a Napoleonic army, but further historical research clarified the setting.)
  c. 1812-1815  
  The spirit of America (see 1776) returns as Brother Jonathan during the War of 1812. Spectre v3 #37-38
  Vandal Savage battles an incarnation of Resurrection Man in Napoleonic France. DCVSF #1. Savage (as “Marshal Sauvage”) was an advisor to Napoleon, per WWho v1 #25 and DC Encyc (orig. Flash v1 #137 <6.63>).
  Frankenstein’s Monster is created, then goes into hiding for decades (see 1870). Young All-Stars #19 <12.88>, SS: Frankenstein #2 <3.06> [provides date]. (See also the novel Frankenstein, by Mary Shelley (1818)—which, however, placed these events in 1797).
  Earliest known appearance of the Contessa Erica del Portenza, in Naples, Italy. (See 1899, 2003/Y15.) Superman: End of the Century GN <2000>. She appears young, but it’s implied she’s already quite old—in which regard, see 2nd Century CE.
  c. 1820s  
  Hawk (son of Tomahawk) and Firehair roam the early American frontier. ZHTL [“early 1800s”]; (1st apps. respectively Tomahawk #131 <11-12.70>, ShC #85 <9.69>). Note also the existence of roughly contemporary historical figures such as Tecumseh (d. 1813) and Davy Crockett (d. 1836, at the Alamo).
  “Gentleman” Jim Craddock (see 1810s) is betrayed by a young woman and hanged for his crimes—but finds himself returning as a ghost. JSA v3 #86-87 <8-9.06>. Date remains approximate. Note that this supersedes the Gentleman Ghost’s competely different pre-IC origin, published only three years earlier [see 1880]. (Craddock orig. 1st app., as the (Gentleman) Ghost, in Flash Comics v1 #88 <10.47>).
  On Krypton, the Science Council supplants the Military Council, and calls back the forces of the Kryptonian Empire. A few renegades leave and take to the spaceways as pirates. Superman #669 <12.07>. Date very approximate; we are told only that it was “a century or more” before Krypton’s destruction [see 1938]. Future stories may provide clarifying details. Admiral Dru-Zod scuttles his flagship; it lands on Earth, coincidentally, in 1938, and is later salvaged by Lex Luthor [see 2008/Yr20].
  Pirate “Dark Conrad” Constantine (ancestor of John) confronts his enemy Captain Jean Lafitte. ST v2 #111 <9.91> . Lafitte was an infamous privateer in the Gulf of Mexico c. 1803-1827.
  The ambitious and quixotic explorer Arthur Gordon Pym finds the mysterious Dzyan race. YA-S #16 <9.88>. (See also Edgar Allen Poe’s Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket (1838).)
  [Jul 31] During France’s “July Revolution,” Countess Margaux de Mortain, this era’s Mlle. Marie (see 1791), gives her life to protect General Lafayette and put Louis-Phillipe, Duc d’Orléans, on the throne. He will be France’s last monarch. Checkmate v2 #21-22
  A frontier scout named Max is granted speed powers by the dying shaman of the slaughtered Blackfoot Clan, and becomes known as Ahwehota, aka Windrunner. Flash v2 #97 <1.95>, Flash SF #1 <11.97>; 1st modern app. Flash v2 #76 <4.93>. Max’s original last name is not known with certainty, but speculation is that it may be Crandall (a tribute to artist Reed Crandall).
  In London, a young man named Dickie Swift gains shadow powers, and loses his mortality. He will become known as the Shade. The nefarious Ludlow family begins a feud against him. Swift’s nemesis, the thief and cutthroat Simon Culp, is similarly empowered by the same mysterious circumstances. Starman SF #1; Shade mini-series #1 <4.97>; Starman v2 #66 <6.00>. (Shade 1st app. Flash v1 #33 <9.42>.)
  [Nov 1] Jonah Hex is born to Woodson and Virginia Hex. Ten years later, his mother abandons his drunken and abusive father for a traveling salesman. Jonah Hex v2 #14 <2.07> confirms the backstory; (dates and original accounts from Jonah Hex v1 #50 <7.81>, #57 <2.82>).
  c. 1840s  
  The masked Don Caballero defends the citizens of Old California. ZHTL [“mid to late 1800s”]; (1st app. All-Star Western #58 <4-5.51>). Dating approximate.
  Don Fernando Suarez of New Mexico becomes the adventurer known as El Castigo, “The Whip.” SO v2 #13 <4.87>. Date approximate. His exploits inspired a successor in the Golden Age; see 1939.
  Green Lantern Starkaxor of Sector 2814 dies defeating conqueror Devlos Ungol, aka Traitor, and passes his power ring to Abin Sur of Ungara. LDCU #20 <9.99>, #28 <5.00>. Date very approximate; it must fall between Waverly Sayre’s tenure [see 1800] and Abin Sur’s next chronicled appearances [see 1873, 1882].
  A band of apes attains superhuman intelligence, and founds the secretive Gorilla City deep in the heart of Africa. SO v2 #40 <5.89>. Date approximate; described only as the mid-19th-century. Note that this supersedes the “1490s” date given in History of the DCU. (1st app. Flash v1 #106 <4-5.59>).
  Max/Ahwehota (see 1838) touches the speed force, and is bounced into the future (see 1860s). Flash SF #1
  A wave of popular revolutions rocks Europe, giving birth to new Constitutions in France, Austria, Italy and Germany. Historical record, provided for context.
  The Shade (see 1838) and Culp meet again in India, and clash for the first time. Starman v2 #66
  In industrial Yorkshire, England, Alicia Huston dies violently and becomes the elemental Lady Jane. ST v2 #120 <6.92>
  [July] Jonah Hex’s father sells his son into slavery to a tribe of Apaches. JH v2 #14; (revising details from the original account in JH v1 #7 <12.77>).
  Jonah Hex saves his tribe’s chief from an attacking puma, and is adopted as his second son. JH v2 #14 (orig. JH v1 #7).
  Boston abolitionist Silas Kent, ancestor of Jonathan Kent, moves to Kansas with two of his sons. The Kents #1 <8.97>
  Betrayed and left for dead by his stepbrother Noh-Tante during a raid on a Kiowa tribe, Jonah Hex abandons the tribe and moves on. JH v2 #14 (orig. JH v1 #7-8 <12.77–1.78>). He thereafter becomes a scout for the U.S. Army.
  His father killed by pro-slavery forces, Silas Kent’s eldest son Nathaniel befriends newcomer Wild Bill Hickok, while Nate’s younger brother Jebediah defects to the pro-slavery side. The Kents #2-3 <10.97>; Hickok (who would be only 19 at this point) from historical record.
  [Sep] Failed businessman Joshua Norton of San Francisco, inspired by Dream, declares himself Emperor Norton I of the United States. Sandman #31 <10.91>; based on historical record.
  In a confrontation over former slave Tobias Freeman, Jeb Kent shoots and wounds his brother Nate. The Kents #4 <11.97>
  [Nov 4] Joshua Wayne (younger son of Charles, who reclaimed his relative Darius’ estates; see 1779, 1800) perishes defending slaves seeking freedom through the “Underground Railroad.” Shadow of the Bat #45 <12.95> [date in story], confirmed in Batman SF #1 <10.97> [text pages]. The family history in those text pages tells us that Charles established the Wayne family fortune in real estate, then died at age 52, while his elder son Solomon became a judge and lived to the ripe old age of 104. This becomes problematic in light of later details; see 1860s-70s, 1892, 1929.
  c. 1860s-1870s  
  Many cowpokes, gunfighters, lawmen, and outlaws travel the trails of the American Old West, including Bat Lash1, Nighthawk2, El Diablo3, Johnny Thunder4, Madame .445, the Trigger Twins6, “Trail Boss” Matt Savage7, his son Brian Savage (aka Ke-Woh-No-Tay, the Scalphunter)8, the 20th-century-born Vigilante9, and—perhaps the most infamous of them all—the bounty hunter Jonah Hex10. ZHTL [“mid to late 1800s”]. Many exact dates remain unclear. Respective origins/1st apps: 1(ShC #76 <8.68>), 2Hawkman Annual #2 <95> & (Western #5 <9-10.48>), 3SO v2 #45 <10.89> & (A-SW v2 #2-3 <10-11.70-1.71>), 4SO v2 #50 <8.90> & (All-American #100 <8.48>), 5(A-SW #117 <2-3.61>), 6(A-SW #58), 7(Western #77 <9-10.59>), 8Starman SF #1 & (Weird Western #39 <3-4.77>), 9S&S #9, and 10SO v2 #21 <12.87> & (A-SW #10 <2-3.72>). (Note also the existence of Billy the Kid (A-SW v2 #6 <6-7.71>), Wyatt Earp, and numerous other colorful historical figures.) More detailed entries are, obviously, included regarding some of these characters. However, a full chronological ordering of all their adventures may well be impossible, and at any rate is beyond the scope of this Chronology. Fortunately (for simplicity’s sake), the vast majority of those adventures were published pre-Crisis, and have never been referenced in post-Crisis reality.
  Max (see 1844) operates as Windrunner in Mesa City, AZ, where he helps Sheriff Bill Tane, and inspires his son John to become the lawman Johnny Thunder. Impulse Annual #2 <97>. The story says “1881,” but that cannot be correct, as Johnny was active earlier; e.g., see 1872. I’ve tentatively relocated it here. [See 1891 next.]
  Judge Solomon Wayne, older brother of Joshua (see 1860) and great-great-great-grandfather of Bruce, bankrolls eccentric architect Cyrus Pinkney, whose industrial-gothic style defines the look of Gotham for a half-century and more. (Solomon also fathers a son late in life, at age 77—Alan, who further expands the family fortune and himself lives to 63.) Batman #474/LODK #27/Detective #641 <2.92>, “Destroyer” [historical background], confirmed in Batman SF #1 [text pages]; exact dates uncertain. Solomon had no offspring as of his earliest appearance [see 1860]… yet in addition to describing Alan the text article also says that Alan’s grandson Patrick “[saw] the Wayne legacy through two World Wars”—which, if taken at face value, suggests by simple arithmetic that Solomon must already be pushing 100 by this date, and that his arrival in Gotham as a young man (and his father Charles’ death) would have been during Darius’ lifetime [see 1800]! To avoid this conflict one must either skip a generation in the text account, or find a more novel interpretive solution. I’ve opted for the latter [see 1892 and 1929], and thereby surmise Alan is born roughly c. 1865.
  Ohiyesa of the Sioux becomes the lawman known as “Pow-Wow Smith.” History of the DCU, Robin Annual #6 <97>; (1st “Old West” app. Western #44 <3-4.54>). Date very approximate.
  [Apr 12] The Civil War breaks out.
• The spirit of America (see 1776) is sundered into Billy Yank and Johnny Reb as brother fights brother.
• Nate Kent fights for the Union, while Jeb sides with the Confederacy, riding with Bill Quantrill’s gang of raiders—which (by 1863) includes brothers Frank and Jesse James.
Re: Spirit, Spectre v3 #37-38; re: Nate & Jeb, The Kents #5-7 <12.97-2.98>. Quantrill and the Jameses from historical record.
  [Sep 18] Jonah Hex, serving with the Confederate Army, is captured and tortured at Fort Donelson, TN. JH v2 #13 <1.07>. (This presumably supersedes the montage reference in JH v1 #8 <1.78> to him fighting at Antietam, which was only one day earlier but hundreds of miles away in MD.)
  [Jan 1] President Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation.
Historical record.
  [Jan 17] Having been found adrift on the Cumberland River and nursed back to health by a local family, Jonah Hex saves the family’s home from raiders, then moves on. JH v2 #13
  [Jan] Disillusioned with the war, Hex voluntarily surrenders to Union troops at Fort Charlotte. When the rest of his unit is captured and then massacred, however, he escapes and returns to battle. (Weird Western Tales #29 <7-8.75>)
  [May] Jonah Hex fights at the Battle of Chancellorsville (where he inadvertantly delivers a fatal wound to Gen. Stonewall Jackson).
[July] Jonah Hex fights at the Seige of Vicksburg.
(JH v1 #8, #37 <6.80>.) Dates from historical record. His actions at Chancellorsville come from a story (#37) that also includes him in the Maryland campaign of Sep 1862, however [see above], and thus may be superseded.
  Nate Kent and Hickok, spying on a rebel camp, narrowly escape a confrontation with Jonah Hex. The Kents #8 <3.98>. This is a relatively early appearance for Hex (only 26, he hasn’t yet earned his bounty-hunting rep—or his scar, depicted in error here, as it came in 1866).
  Rich eccentric Burnley Ellsworth establishes old Opal City (the part now known as “the Alleys”). Starman v2 #0 <10.94>
  [Sep] Emperor Norton (see 1859) makes the young writer Mark Twain America’s official storyteller. Sandman #31
  [Apr 9] The Civil War ends with the General Lee’s surrender. Historical record.
  [Apr 23] Jonah Hex surrenders to the Union (again), along with the 7th Light Cavalry, at Lynchburg, VA. (JH v1 #30 <11.79>)
  Jonah Hex returns to the Apache tribe of his youth, seeking revenge on Noh-Tante. When he kills his former stepbrother in a ritual fight, the chief hideously scars his face as punishment. SO v2 #21 <12.87>, JH v2 #15 <3.07> [confirming that it has been “twelve years” since his departure]; (orig. JH v1 #8).
  A drunken Jonah Hex guns down the rogue “Mad Dog” Lucas McGill in the street—and learns there is money to be made in bounty hunting. SO v2 #21
  Jeb Kent falls into robbing banks with the James gang. Meanwhile, Nate Kent becomes a U.S. Marshal along with Hickok. The Kents #9-10 <4-5.98>
  Arthur Gordon Pym (see 1827), his life extended, begins operating undersea as Captain Nemo. YA-S #16. (See also Jules Verne’s novel 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (1870).)
  The Shade and Culp battle again (see 1850), in Vienna. Starman v2 #66
  [Nov 26] Nate Kent serves alongside Scalphunter as a scout for General Custer’s 7th Cavalry—but both soon quit, sickened by the Indian massacre at Washita. The Kents #9-10. Massacre date from historical record. Note also the reference to historical figure Buffalo Bill Cody, active as of 1867.
  Frankenstein’s monster (see 1816) defeats a scheme by Melmoth (see 1590) in the Pacific Northwest. SS: Frankenstein #1 <1.06>. The monster emerges briefly in 1942 [YA-S #19 <12.88>], then is not seen again until 2008/Yr20.
  c. 1870-71  
  Vandal Savage advises Prussia’s Count von Bismarck, helping orchestrate the Franco-Prussian War and Bismarck’s subsequent elevation to Chancellor of a newly unified Germany. WWho v1 #25. Interestingly, no significant encounters have been chronicled between Savage and the equally immortal Jason Blood, who was also active in Germany at this time, per ST #85 <4.89>.
  Jeb Kent drives cattle to Abilene under Matt Savage, and gets to know gunman John Wesley Hardin. Meanwhile, Nate is reunited with his sweetheart Mary Glenowen, marries her in June, and settles down as sheriff of Smallville, Kansas. The Kents #11 <6.98>; Hardin from historical record. Note that this Matt Savage is apparently not the same as the father of Scalphunter (a generation separates them), although there could be some as-yet-unrevealed relation.
  New York political cartoonist Samuel Augustus Adams is murdered by order of the corrupt “Boss” Tweed, and his soul bonds with the spirit of America (see 1776) to become Uncle Sam. Spectre v3 #37-38. The date in the story (“late 1870s” ?) is too late, as Tweed was arrested and jailed in 1871.
  Bat Lash first meets Jonah Hex, helping him bring justice to a corrupt sheriff. JH v2 #3 <3.06>. Date approximate; could be earlier, but must precede the 1872 story below in which they cross paths. Jonah Hex stories are difficult to place as a general rule, as the few in-story dates given tend to jump forward and back in time, in both the current series and the original, and past events are only seldom referenced. Note that although this tale involves the sheriff of a town called “Kent,” and his brother “Nate,” there is no actual connection to the Kents of Kansas.
  [Nov 7] Swamp Thing meets several western heroes while traveling backward through time (see 1800, 1917), forced to defend Hawk’s aged and corrupt uncle Wise Owl from an attack engineered by Jason Blood and Otto von Hammer. The heroes free both him and Lazarus (El Diablo) Lane from Wise Owl’s control. ST v2 #84-85 <3-4.89>. Date given in story. All told, the story includes Jonah Hex, an elderly Hawk and Firehair, Johnny Thunder and Madame .44 (married to one another—per DC Comics Presents #28 <12.80>), Bat Lash and Super-Chief (orig. A-SW #117), Black Bison (orig. Fury of Firestorm #1 <6.82>), and El Diablo—as well as Jason Blood.
  Jonah Hex and El Diablo take on a band of murderous carny folk. JH v2 #11 <11.06>. Date approximate. It is clearly not their first meeting.
  Abin Sur of Ungara, Green Lantern of Sector 2814, temporarily bequeaths his ring to Daniel Young of Earth, a Montana Sheriff, to serve as a substitute GL. (GL v2 #149 <2.82>.) Possibly apocryphal now, but interesting.
  First-time time-traveler Walker Gabriel is stuck in Smallville, where he meets Nathaniel Kent. Chronos #1-2 <3-4.98>. Now apocryphal, a deleted Hypertimeline [see note at 1464].
  [Sep 5] Running his own gang, Jeb Kent crosses paths with his brother Nate on a raid into Smallville—and dies at the hand of his own illegitimate son, Taylor Beaumont. The Kents #12 <7.98>. Thankfully, the generations between Nate and Jonathan [see 1946] remain to be chronicled—in contrast to the overcrowded Wayne family history [see 1860s-70s].
  [Sep 16] Rip Hunter’s colleague Jeff Smith (see 2001/Yr13) fails to prevent Vandal Savage’s scheme to elevate Porfirio Diaz to the presidency of Mexico. TM #3 <4.90>. The story involves Bat Lash, Scalphunter, and Jonah Hex.
  [Feb 12] The Vigilante defeats a giant spider known as “the Monster of Miracle Mesa.” Seven Soldiers #0 <4.05>. The Vigilante notes that he was stuck in the past for “five years” before his retrieval to the present [see 1948, 1995/Yr7], but it is not clear whether this is closer to the beginning or the end of that span. (Earlier accounts had suggested an even longer stay.)
  When his parents are killed and their west Texas ranch burned, Bat Lash hits the trail seeking justice. Bat Lash v2 #1-6 <2-7.08>. This is clearly an origin story, expanding on the version told in (Bat Lash v1 #6-7 <8-9–10-11.69>). As such, the date provided is an awkward fit (albeit not impossible) with his chronicled earlier appearances, above; 1871 would be a far easier fit. Regardless, however, the 1862 encounter with Scalphunter and President Lincoln (chronicled in Weird Western #52 <2.79>) is such a chronological stretch that it is almost certainly apocryphal, despite the fact that it is reaffirmed [in Starman v2 #73 <1.01>] in the dying recollections of Scalphunter’s later incarnation, Matt O’Dare.
  Jonah Hex is transported (temporarily) into a post-apocalyptic future (see 2050). Jonah Hex #92 <8.85> & Hex #1-18 <9.85-2.87>. Since the date is specified as 1875, it actually must precede events below chronicled earlier in the series (all things considered, 1878 would be a more sensible date). He is returned to his proper time period after meeting Metamorpho as the result of a time anomaly in JLE Annual #2 <91>.
  [Autumn] Jonah Hex marries Mei Ling, a Chinese woman whole life he had once saved. JH v2 #25 <1.08> confirms the backstory; (orig. JH v1 #45 <2.81>; Mei Ling 1st app. JH v1 #23 <4.79>. They celebrate Jonah’s 37th birthday [i.e., Nov 1875] in JH v1 #50 <7.81>).
  [Spring] Mei Ling bears Jonah Hex a son, Jason. Despairing over he husband’s violent life, she leaves with the baby. JH v2 #25 confirms by reference; (JH v1 #51-53 <8-10.81>).
  [Jun 25] General Custer is defeated by Sitting Bull at the battle of Little Big Horn. Historical record, provided for context.
  [Aug 2] Wild Bill Hickok is murdered at a poker table in Deadwood, Dakota Territory. Historical record, provided for context; also mentioned in SO v2 #21.
  [Oct 31] Jonah Hex, Bat Lash, and El Diablo save the town of Coffin Creek from demonic infestation. JH v2 #24 <12.07>. The year is approximate (it could be later), but the Halloween date is given in the story.
  Bat Masterson becomes a U.S. Marshal in the Dakota Territory, then moves on to Dodge City, KS, where he meets Wyatt Earp. Historical record, provided for context.
  Several western heroes (Nighthawk, Jonah Hex, Bat Lash, Scalphunter, and Johnny Thunder) are swept up in the time-melding Crisis on Infinite Earths (see 1999/Yr11). Crisis #3-5 <6-8.85> [date given in #3]. This was originally chronicled as the first meeting of Bat Lash and Johnny Thunder, but see 1872.
  [Jan 08] Joshua Norton (see 1859) dies in San Francisco. Over 10,000 people attend his funeral. Sandman #31; also historical record.
  Nighthawk meets Kate “Cinnamon” Manser when they foil a lynching together in St. Roch, LA. Nighthawk and Kate become lovers. Hawkman #7 <11.02>. (Cinnamon 1st app. Weird Western #48 <9-10.78>.) Date very approximate, but must precede the couple’s appearance together against Extant [see 1882]. The pair are reincarnations of Khufu and Chay-ara [see 13th Century BCE]. The story is questionable due to its inclusion of “Gentleman” Jim Craddock, who Nighthawk later kills over a misunderstanding [Hawkman #14 <6.03>], in light of Craddock’s revised origins [see 1820s].
  [Jan] Consulting detective Sherlock Holmes takes lodgings at 221B Baker Street, London, with Dr. John H. Watson, beginning a partnership in detection that will span three decades. Watson’s chronicles of their exploits will cement Holmes’ reputation as the greatest detective who ever lived. Existence in DCU confirmed by Detective #572 <3.87>. (Orig. A Study in Scarlet, by Arthur Conan Doyle (1887)); date from William S. Baring-Gould’s superlative Annotated Sherlock Holmes, ©1967. As with Frankenstein, Arthur Gordon Pym, Captain Nemo and others, Holmes (b. 1854) is part of the DCU thanks to his availability in the public domain.
  [Jul 15] Sherriff Pat Garrett shoots Billy the Kid. Historical record, provided for context. William H. Bonney is only 21 at the time, but he has killed 21 men.
  [Oct 26] Wyatt Earp and his brothers confront Ike Clanton and his outlaw “Cowboys” at the O.K. Corral in Tombstone, AZ. Historical record, provided for context; also mentioned in SO v2 #21.
  GL Abin Sur tracks the alien Traitor (see 1840s) to Earth, where he apprehends him alongside Marshal Henry Lee Jordan of Coffin Springs, AZ. Legends of the DCU #20-21 <9-10.99>. Jordan is stated to be a former deputy of Nate Kent in Kansas.
  The Shade (see 1866) meets Oscar Wilde in Opal City (see 1864), during Wilde’s tour of America. Starman v2 #2 <12.94>, #66. Dated correctly: Wilde’s journey is a matter of historical record.
  A diverse group of western heroes (Bat Lash, El Diablo, Firehair, Matt Savage, Scalphunter, Johnny Thunder, Madame .44, Nighthawk, and Cinnamon) takes on Extant during the “Crisis in Time” induced by Parallax (see 2002/Yr14). Guy Gardner: Warrior #24 <10.94> [a Zero Hour crossover]. Date approximate, but it must fall between 1872 (the Johnny Thunder/Madame .44 pairing) and 1884 (Brian Savage's move to Opal City). Absent more precise evidence I’ve placed it here, three years after the Crisis crossover, thus matching the gap between the corresponding 20th-century events.
  Accepting the white side of his heritage in addition to the Kiowa side, Brian (Scalphunter) Savage becomes Sheriff of Opal City. Starman Annual #2 <97>, Starman SF #1 [provides date], among other references.
  Vandal Savage confronts an incarnation of Resurrection Man in London’s Whitechapel district. DCVSF #1. The scene evokes the Ripper murders—but that can only be coincidental; those occurred in 1888. Nevertheless, some sources (e.g., DC Encyc) have claimed that Savage was the Ripper.
  [Dec] Sherlock Holmes defeats Professor Moriarty in “The Adventure of the Red Leech.” Detective #572
  Vandal Savage is once again living in England (see 1785), on an estate near Little Baddow. JSAC #12
  Lord John Greystoke and his young wife are stranded in equatorial Africa. Not long after the birth of their infant son, they perish at the hands of a wild ape. Tarzan #207-210 <4-7.72> (adapting E.R. Burroughs’ Tarzan of the Apes (1914)) et seq. [See 1909.]
  [Autumn] The mysterious Jack the Ripper terrorizes streetwalkers in London’s Whitechapel district. Historical record; cf. 1884. His true identity in the DCU was revealed as Dr. William Withey Gull (possessed by the demon Calibraxis) in Hellblazer #53 <5.92>. He was ultimately captured by Edgar Allen Poe and a time-travelling Ralph Dibny, according to Ralph in 52 #33 <12.06>, but it remains a “big historical secret.” (Pre-Crisis, the Ripper’s identity was discovered in an “I, Vampire” story in House of Mystery #306 <7.82>.)
  Back in Britain, Madame Xanadu (see 1793) tries unsuccessfully to prevent the Ripper killings. The Phantom Stranger merely observes but does not aid her efforts, driving a wedge between them. Mme Xanadu #7-8 <2-4.09>. The Stranger reveals that this final victim, Mary Kelly, was actually carrying a semi-demoic baby fathered by Jason Blood. The Stranger does ultimately confront the Ripper, but apparently not fatally, given the information above.
  Hob Gadling meets again with Dream, and offers him friendship, but is rebuffed. Sandman #13
  Butch Cassidy forms the “Wild Bunch” outlaw gang. Historical record, provided for context. The gang operates until 1901, the date of its final train robbery.
  Count Dracula (see 1476) travels to England and attacks London, until he is tracked down by a dedicated band of vampire-hunters. (See also Bram Stoker’s novel Dracula (1897).) He is in the public domain, and canonical in the DCU per Superman v2 #180. Vanessa Van Helsing, a descendant of one of Dracula’s original opponents, also appeared in the DCU pre-Crisis (Night Force v1 #1 <8.82> et seq.).
  [Dec 29] A band of surrendering Lakota Sioux is gunned down at the Massacre at Wounded Knee, SD—the final conflict of the long-running Indian Wars. Historical record. Also mentioned in ST v2 #45 <2.86>.
  [Jan] Eclipso’s mystical Heart of Darkness is discovered, returned to civilization, and cut into 100 “black diamonds” (see 3100 BCE, 1989/Yr1). Eclipso: The Darkness Within #1 <7.92>
  [Win] Sherlock Holmes survives a confrontation with Eclipso, but Irene Adler (always “the woman” to Holmes) dies defeating the villain. Eclipso #7-8 <5-6.93>. Watson described her as “the late Irene Adler” when her story, “A Scandal in Bohemia” (set c. 1888), saw print in The Strand in July 1891. Furthermore, datewise, Holmes confronted Prof. Moriarty at Reichenbach Falls in spring of 1891 (“The Final Problem”), and was thereafter thought dead for three years.
  The former Ahwehota (see 1844, 1860s) serves justice in New York under the new alias Whip Whirlwind. Flash SF #1, Speed Force #1 <11.97>. Several more time jumps occur between here and the Golden Age [see 1921].
  The Shade (see 1882) settles permanently in Opal City. Starman SF #1
  Opal City Sheriff Brian Savage flirts briefly with wealthy socialite Margaret DeVere, then returns to his true love Annie. Starman Annual #2
  Vandal Savage battles an incarnation of Resurrection Man on the streets of Tucson, AZ. DCVSF #1
  Solomon Wayne (see 1860s-70s) dies at 104, leaving his fortune to his son Alan, who invests in the railroad business and founds the umbrella company Wayne Enterprises. Batman SF #1 [text pages]. Date approximate, based on conflicting constraints in the account. I speculate that Solomon was born c. 1788, and entered Gotham (with his father and brother) shortly after 1800; Alan would thus be 27 at this point. We know he lives to age 63; see 1929.
  Insane inventor Lucius Keller hunts down Max/Ahwehota’s loved ones. Impulse #58 <3.00>, #71 <4.01>.
  Cyrus Gold perishes in Slaughter Swamp. (He will become the monstrous Solomon Grundy; see 1944.) IInc. #39; (All-American #61 <10.44>).
  Opal City Sheriff Brian Savage helps Shade find justice for a black murder victim. Starman 80-Pg Giant #1 <1.99>
  [Dec 25] Hugo Danner is born, one of the first true superhumans of the modern era. YA-S #9-11 <2-4.88>. (Based on Philip Wylie’s novel Gladiator (1930).) He is Iron Munro’s father [see 1942].
  A Japanese officer becomes the O-Sensei, future leader of the League of Assassins. Detective Annual #1 <88>; dies in Question Annual #1 <88>. (1st app. Strange Adventures v1 #215 <11-12.68>.) The O-Sensei was a key trainer of martial arts masters Richard Dragon, Lady Shiva, and the Bronze Tiger.
  Brian Savage retires to a farm with Annie, and fathers a son, Steve. Starman 80-pg Giant #1
  Anton Arcane is born. ST #83 <2.89>. Date approximate.
  Writer and futurist H.G. Wells invents a time machine. In a closed-off hypertime loop, a time-displaced Ralph (Elongated Man) Dibny befriends Wells, and uses the machine to rescue his similarly displaced Justice League teammates from other eras (see 1875, 2050). JLE Annual #2 . Note Waverider’s observation that while the time loop had been circumvented, Wells’ machine is an historical fact.
  c. 1898  
  Nighthawk is murdered, and avenged by Cinnamon. Hawkman SF #1 <10.02> [provides approximate date—but on the other hand, Carter Hall’s scrapbook in Hawkman #18 shows Hannibal Hawkes’ lifespan as 1858-1911], Hawkman #7 <11.02>. This (apparently) supersedes his murder by Vandal Savage as seen in Hawkman v3 #13 <9.94> (not to mention his death in Crisis #3 <6.85>).
  Brian Savage (see 1884, 1895) returns to his role as Opal City’s chief lawman. Starman SF #1
  [Sep] Herman Moll of Opal City builds a starship. Starman v2 #54 <6.99>
  In Mexico, an aging Jonah Hex meets his grown son Jason (see 1876), but does not learn of his infant grandson Woodson. JH v2 #25 <1.08>
  Fleeing bad luck, Bat Lash hightails it for the Orient. Guns of the Dragon #1 <10.98>
  Erica del Portenza (see 1818) abandons her murderous son Luca on a Caribbean island. Superman: End of the Century GN
  [Dec 31] In one bloody night, aging Sheriff Brian Savage hunts down and kills the 57 members of Opal City’s murderous “Tuesday Club”—only to die in the end himself, shot in the back. Starman v2 #74 <2.01>; exact date from Starman SF #1 [“Shade’s Journal”] and Starman v2 #71 <11.00>.
  [Dec 31] The infants Richard Occult and Rose Psychic (see 1935) are rescued from the demon Koth and taken in by a mystic circle called The Seven. SO v2 #17 <8.87>
History Notes and References
  20th Century: 1900   ↑ top
  [Jan 03] Jim Corrigan is born (see 1939). Spectre v3 #46 <10.96> provides the year; day from the 1976 DC Calendar and Roy Thomas’ All-Star Companion (©2000). Corrigan is the first-born of the Golden Age generation of heroes. See Section VIII, “You Say It’s Your Birthday,” for further details.
  Professor George Edward Challenger discovers the prehistoric Maple White Land in South America. YA-S #28 <8.89>. (See A. Conan Doyle’s The Lost World (1912); now in the public domain.)
  [Dec] Jonah Hex is shot and killed by George Barrow. His body is stuffed and preserved for future display. As seen in SO v2 #21. (Orig. Jonah Hex Spectacular #1 [DC Special #16] <Aut.78>.) Born on Nov. 1, 1838 (Jonah Hex v1 #50 <7.81>), he is 66 at his death.
  Dr. Alex Olson, transformed into the 20th century’s first Swamp Thing, hunts down his killer to save the life of his wife. ST v2 #33 <2.85>, #47 <4.86> [gives date]; (orig. House of Secrets v1 #92 <7.71>). He later learns his true nature and befriends the Cajuns of the Louisiana swamp country.
  [Apr 18] A major earthquake rocks San Francisco; the time-displaced Captain Atom and Monarch (see 64 CE) are there to witness it. Vandal Savage later claims to have caused the quake. Arm:AA #3 <1.92>; re: Savage, Guns of the Dragon #4 <1.99>. Event and date from historical record, not specified but clearly intended in the story. Jonah Hex’s cameo in this story is an error, as he died in 1904. Matt Savage’s cameo may also be apocryphal, but Bat Lash, Pow-Wow Smith, and the Trigger Twins are probably valid. (An alternative view, per fan speculation, sets this story on Oct. 21, 1868, during a smaller earthquake earlier in San Francisco’s history.)
  [Jun 30] A huge fireball, apparently a meteorite, devastates Tunguska, Siberia. YA-S #22 <1.89>; the woman later known as Fireball was present—as was an ancestor of Red Star [see 1993/Yr5] (NTT #18 <4.82>). Event and date from actual historical record.
  A great modernist expansion begins in Opal City, lasting until the Depression halts building in 1930. Starman SF #1, Starman v2 #68 <8.00>; also claimed to begin in 1902, according to Jack Knight in Starman #0.
  Tarzan of the Apes (see 1888) meets Jane Porter on her father’s expedition to Africa, follows her to America, and learns of his inheritance as Lord Greystoke. Tarzan #207-210 (adapting E.R. Burroughs’ Tarzan of the Apes (1914)) et al. While DC did publish a Tarzan series for several years, and the first few books are now in the public domain, the name Tarzan is still a trademark of ERB, Inc., so his existence in the DCU cannot be fully confirmed.
  [Dec] Consulting Detective Hamilton Drew sets up shop in Ivy Town, and meets attorney Ben Luddy, who soon becomes his assistant and friend. Starman v2 #68. Drew is clearly a student of the methods of Sherlock Holmes. At some unspecified later date, he is trapped in Hell (along with many others) via a magical circus poster, only to be freed in Opal City in the present day [c. 2003/Yr15] by Jack (Starman) Knight [Starman v2 #26 <1.97>].
  [Apr 15] The ocean liner Titanic sinks in the North Atlantic—actually caused by Leviathan, built by Arthur Gordon Pym (see 1866), who now goes by the name Perkins. YA-S #16
  Hob Gadling takes passage from Bombay to Liverpool aboard his own ship, the Sea Witch. He meets a young deckhand named “Jim” (actually Margaret) and an immortal Indian, and they encounter a sea serpent. Sandman #53 <9.93>
  [Jul 28] The First World War begins. Prominent combatants will include Steve Savage (the Balloon Buster)1 and Hans Von Hammer (the Enemy Ace)2. ZHTL. 1Steve Savage is the son of Brian Savage [Starman Annual #2 <97>]; (1st app. All-American Men of War v2 #112 <11-12.65>). 2(1st app. Our Army at War #151 <2.65>).
  [Jun 10] Morpheus, Lord of Dreams, is imprisoned on Earth by amateur sorcerer Roderick Burgess. A mysterious sleeping sickness begins to afflict unlucky souls around the world. ZHTL*; Sandman #1 <1.89>. Date from story; the ZH Timeline’s date of 1919 is in error, as confirmed online by Sandman writer Neil Gaiman himself. The sleeping sickness is historical fact.
  Marie Solomon, as Mlle. Marie (see 1791, 1830, 1942), helps protect the Sacred Road during the Battle of Verdun. Checkmate v2 #22 <3.08>. Date from historical record.
  [Apr 6] The U.S. enters the War. A time-traveling Swamp Thing (see 1872, 1945), together with Hans Von Hammer, defeats a young Anton Arcane. ZHTL; historical record; also ST v2 #83 <2.89>. Uncle Sam [see 1871, 1941] is also resurgent during this period.
  [Aug 1] After Etrigan’s bloody role in the third battle of Ypres, the demon blankets Jason Blood’s memory. His true past, from Camelot forward, remains hidden from him for eighty years. Demon #0. It is later intimated [in WW #132-35] that the bald, aged version of Merlin who ultimately revealed Blood’s past to him was also responsible for much of his evil nature. Regardless, the past remains as chronicled.
  A gang war takes place in Opal City, ended by Police Chief Carny O’Dare at “the seige of Garlic Lane.” Starman SF #1 [“Shade’s Journal”], Starman v2 #74 [reference only].
  [Nov 11] World War I ends with an armistice. ZHTL; also historical record.
  Disheartened by his experiences as an underage soldier in the war, Lee Travis (see 1937, 1938) travels the world, eventually reaching the Himalayan refuge of Nanda Parbat… where a decade of his life passes unnoticed, as the goddess Rama Kushna restores his spirit with glimpses of Superman’s future heroism. Golden Age SF #1 <2.01>; date approximate. Note that this retcons his history from SO v2 #5 <8.86> with regard to his youthful experiences in the 1920s. (Rama Kushna 1st app. in the Deadman feature in Strange Adventures v1 #205 <9.67>.)
  Young Rex Tyler (see 1938) receives an hourglass from his future descendant, the android Hourman III. All-Star Comics v2 #1 <5.99>
  c. 1920  
  When Prohibition is enacted, Gotham gangster Guiseppe Bertinelli unites the Beretti and Galante families behind him, wins a gang war with the Cassamentos and Inzerillos, and becomes top capo of Gotham’s “Five Families” of organized crime. Batman/Huntress: Cry for Blood #1 <6.00>
  A man called Dekan Drache summons Felix Faust (see 5000 BCE) back to the earthly plane. SO v2 #27. Details remain unchronicled. Date ambiguous; the story situates the scene vaguely between WW I and the 1930s.
  Outside Gotham City, Dr. Amadeus Arkham founds the asylum that will bear his name. He will be imprisoned there himself in 1929. Arkham Asylum GN <89>, Batman Villains Secret Files #1 <10.98>. (Asylum 1st app. Batman #258 <9-10.74>; origin: WWho v1 #1 <3.85>.)
  [Autumn] Max/Ahwehota (see 1891, 1937), now aka “Lightning,” saves Babe Ruth from crooks trying to fix the World Series. Flash 80-Pg Giant #1 <8.98>
  A time-travelling Jack (Starman) Knight visits the planet Krypton, and meets the 17-year-old Jor-El. Sandman #50-51 <2-3.99>, #75 <3.01>. If this still occurred at all in “New Earth” history, it must have been very different from the published account, which featured a sterile Man of Steel-style Krypton rather than the new/old version seen in, e.g., Action Annual #10 <2007>.
  [Spring] An elderly Bat Lash, along with Biff Bradley, Hans Von Hammer, the enigmatic Miss Fear, and a young Chop-Chop, attempts to recover mystic Chinese artifacts from “Dragon Island,” but they are outmaneuvered by Vandal Savage. Guns of the Dragon #1-4 <10.98-1.99>. (1st app. Miss Fear, Modern Comics #49 <5.46>; 1st app. Dragon Island, as “Dinosaur Island,” Star-Spangled War #90 <4-5.60>.) It is implied but not established that this Chop-Chop is the one who later joined the Blackhawks [see 1940]; if so, he’s older than previously believed. (More likely, but speculative, is that it’s his father.) Biff Bradley (1st app. here) is (speculatively) an older brother or other relative of Slam Bradley [see 1937]; he dies in this adventure. The story also features the chronologically earliest appearance of the WW II-era assassin Kung [1st app. Wonder Woman v1 #237 <11.77>; seen also in in All-Star Squadron #8 <4.82> and later].
  [Spring] Writer Erasmus Fry captures and imprisons the muse Calliope, former lover of Dream and mother of Orpheus. Sandman #17 <7.90>
  Vandal Savage, allied with Al Capone’s mob, fights an incarnation of Resurrection Man in Chicago. DCVSF #1. The gangland affiliation is clear but unstated. The DCU status of Eliot Ness remains to be explored, but note that the Untouchables were not established until 1929.
  c. 1928  
  Child prodigy Terry Sloane is an accomplished architect at only eight years old. National Comics #1 <5.99>. Date approximate. In adulthood he will become Mr. Terrific; see 1941.
  A year after his father Alan’s death at 63, Kenneth Wayne dies young, but not without having founded Wayne Chemical. He leaves behind a widow, Laura (who assumes control of the family fortune in his stead), and a son, Patrick (who himself later founds WayneTech). Batman SF #1 [text pages]. Date approximate, due to conflicting time constraints in the account [see 1860-70s]. I’ve attempted to reconcile these by setting aside the text’s implications that Patrick was still an infant when his father died, and an adult by World War I. Thus, we recapture about 20 years. If Kenneth were born by 1890 and Patrick c. 1910, then the latter could indeed have been an infant when his mother lobbied for Prohibition, and would indeed have seen the First World War (as a child)—but by my interpretation he does not inherit the family businesses until his mother’s death (and his own majority) in the early 1930s. Meanwhile, his own son Thomas is born c. 1930.
  [Oct 29] The U.S. stock market plummets, inaugurating the decade-long Great Depression. Historical record, provided for context.
  c. 1930  
  10-year-old Terry Sloane, already being compared to Einstein, designs a new seaplane for the U.S. Navy. He can defeat two grown men in a fight. (Sensation #1 <1.42>)
  The Shade reluctantly kills Marguerite Croft, the woman he loves, when he discovers she is a Ludlow (see 1838) seeking to poison him. Shade mini-series #2 <6.97>
  Terry Sloane graduates from high school. (Sensation #1)
  A Brooklyn rabbi creates the golem that will be known as the Monolith. Monolith #1-3 <4-6.04>. The creature is active for two years, then buried until the present day.
  Terry Sloane, age 12, earns his first college degree. (Sensation #1)
  Franklin Delano Roosevelt is inaugurated as U.S. president. Adolf Hitler comes to power in Germany. Historical record, provided for context.
  The top-secret Project M (see 1941) recovers the body of a giant gorilla killed in New York City. YA-S #12 <5.88>. See also the movie King Kong (1933). (The ape is not named as such, however, since like Tarzan but unlike certain other characters [see 1625, 1707, 1757, 1816, 1827, 1866, 1881, 1890, 1894, 1903], Kong is still protected intellectual property, not yet in the public domain.)
  In an Indian prison, Isaac Bowin acquires the mystic musical powers that he will use to become The Fiddler. Hawkworld Annual #1 <90>
  Dr. Occult, psychic detective, makes his professional debut. ZHTL; SO v2 #17, #27; (1st app. New Fun Comics #6 <10.35>). A Siegel & Shuster creation, and (briefly) the first caped comic-book hero.
  Archaeologist Indiana Jones goes on a quest for the lost Ark of the Covenant. Spectre Annual #1 <95> (allusion re: Ark); (A-SSq #6 <2.82> (mentioned by name)). As with Kong and Tarzan, however, the character is still copyrighted and cannot be made fully and officially canonical in the DCU.
  At the 1936 Berlin Olympics, medal-winning black athletes Jesse Owens and Will Everett discredit Hitler’s racial theories. Meanwhile, young Terry Sloane earns three gold medals as well. Event and Owens from historical record. Everett will later become Amazing Man [see 1942]: JSA v4 #12 <3.08>; (orig. A-SSq #23 7.83). Re: Sloane: National #1.
  Prosecutor Brian O’Brien begins fighting crime as The Clock. Starman v2 #19-20 <6-7.96> [the Shade confirms not only that O’Brien is canonical, but that he is still alive and operating in Chicago, despite earlier reports of a death in the 1940s]; (1st app. Funny Pages #6 and Funny Picture Stories #1, both <11.36>). He is the first masked (but not costumed) comic-book hero.
  Polish aviator Janos Prohaska (see 1939) fights with the republican Loyalists against General Franco’s Fascists in the Spanish Civil War. American Lee Travis (see 1919, 1938) tries to take part as well, but never sees action. Respectively SO v2 #45 <10.89>; #5 <8.86>.
  The former Ahwehota (see 1921, 1941) emerges from another time-skip and begins operating clandestinely. Flash SF #1
  Adventurers Cyril “Speed” Saunders and “Slam” Bradley each have their first recorded exploits. JSASF #1 [re: Saunders], Sensation v2 #1 <5.99> [re: Bradley]; (both 1st app. Detective Comics #1 <3.37>). Slam Bradley may be related to the deceased Biff Bradley [see 1927].
  On Krypton, Jax-Ur destroys Kandor’s lunar colony. The alien Brainiac (see 1710) takes notice, soon attacking and stealing the city of Kandor itself from the planet’s surface. Action #866-67 <8-9.08>, Action Annual #12 <2009> [the depictions do not match perfectly, especially as regards Ursa’s role]. In issue #867 Kara Zor-El describes this as having happened only “months” before she (and her cousin Kal-El) narrowly escaped Krypton’s destruction [see 1938]. Issue #866 captions it “35 years ago,” but that clearly cannot be accurate given other known history about Krypton (and about Clark Kent’s age).

↑ top 

This page last updated 07/03/2009.