II:  The Golden Age

Section Intro | 1938-1941 | 1942-1945 | 1946-1951


History Notes and References
  [Winter] Plagued by troubled dreams, New York playboy Wesley Dodds becomes the first costumed “mystery-man”—the Sandman. He meets the precocious socialite Dian Belmont, daughter of D.A. Larry Belmont, and apprehends the murderer calling himself “the Tarantula.” ZHTL*; the ZH Timeline places him in 1939 [Secret Origins v2 #7 <10.86> said June 10, 1939], but Sandman Mystery Theatre #1-4 <4-7.93> (et seq.), with their topical historical references, leave no doubt of the correct date. (1st app. NY World’s Fair Comics #1 <1939> and/or Adventure Comics #40 <7.39>. Sandman also battled a Tarantula in the Adventure #40 story, but the resemblance is in name only.)
  [Feb 26] The Sandman hunts down the Chinatown serial killer “the Face.” SMT #5-8 <8-11.93>; date from Dian Belmont’s diary. (“The Face” was also the villain of Adventure #44 <11.39>, but again the character and story are different.)
  [Apr 18?] The planet Krypton explodes. Action Comics #850 <7.07> and countless earlier retellings; (1st app. Action #1 <6.38>, which actually hit the stands on April 18 of that year). This event is kept in 1938 [as noted inStarman v2 #50 <2.99>] for obvious nostalgic reasons. The planet’s distance was originally stated as 50 light-years from Earth [Superman v2 #18, published <6.88>, but now set later—see 2000/Yr12], and Superman Secret Files #1 <1.98> thoughtlessly corroborates this, but adjusting the distance is clearly sentimentally preferable to changing the date. Note that Argo City narrowly escapes, surviving under a force field, per Action #869 <11.08>.
  [Oct 30] Publisher Lee Travis (see 1919, 1937) dons a costume to become The Crimson Avenger, assisted by his valet (and sidekick), Wing. ZHTL; SO v2 #5 <8.86>, [provides date, tied to Orson Welles’ historic “War of the Worlds” radio broadcast], SMT #17-20 <8-11.94>, Golden Age SF #1 <2.01>; (1st app. Detective Comics #20 <10.38>).
  Adventurer “Hop” Harrigan is active. History of the DC Universe <1986> [gives year]; (1st app. All-American Comics #1 <4.39>).
  [Autumn] College junior Jay Garrick acquires super-speed in a lab accident and becomes the original Flash (the first super-powered costumed hero). ZHTL; SO v2 #9 <12.86>, Flash Secret Files #1 <11.97> [date from timeline, not story]; (1st app. Flash Comics v1 #1 <1.40>). Pre-Zero Hour, the Flash and certain other early heroes [Green Lantern, Hawkman] had debuted in 1940 or ’41, but the shift here seems to have been deliberate, not accidental, to replace the Golden Age heroes lost to the Crisis. I’m keeping it. (Note, however, that some Secret Files issues have overlooked this altered sequence. The Jan. 25, 1940, date given in JSA v3 #13 <8.00> is likewise an oversight. GASF #1 attemps to rectify this discrepancy by stating that Jay acquired his powers in 1938, but didn’t adopt his costume until 1940.)
  [Nov 7] Zatara the Magician begins his heroic career. SO v2 #27 <6.88>; (expanding on events from DC Blue Ribbon Digest #5 <11-12.80>; 1st app. Action #1). This is the first occasion on which he publicly performs “real” magic, preventing a theater fire. (The date is from the pre-Crisis account.) Despite appearances in SO v2 #27, the panels set on Sep 1, 1939 (the day Germany invaded Poland) must come later; they are too late to represent Zatara’s actual debut.
  [Nov 26] The Crimson Avenger is interviewed (by Jonathan Law; see 1941) on the front page of the New York Daily Globe-Leader (Lee Travis’ own paper). His heroic example begins to inspire others. GASF #1. A story in the same issue describes the Crimson as the DCU’s first costumed hero, but the evidence is clear that the Sandman preceded him (as did other precursors as far back as 1935 and ’36). However, it seems fair to say that he was the first publicly known mystery-man.
  The Sandman confronts the villainous “Dr. Death,” and Dian Belmont learns that he is actually Wesley Dodds. SMT #21-24 <12.94-3.95>. (Dian originally 1st appeared and learned Wes’ secret in Adventure #47 <2.40>.)
  [Dec] The Crimson Avenger defeats a Nazi SS plot called “The Black Cross.” Crimson Avenger mini-series #1-4 <6-9.88>
  [Dec 24-31] Chemist Rex Tyler, having invented the super-energizing drug Miraclo, makes his first (unsuccessful) outing as “The Hour-Man.” ZHTL*; SMT #29-32 <8-11.95>, superseding the Dec. 1939 account from SO v2 #16 <7.87>; (1st app. Adv. #48 <3.40>).
  A plethora of amazing figures bursts on the scene, as enumerated below: ZHTL. (The sequence given in ZHTLTL for the character debuts that follow [1939-’42] has been maintained when possible… however, it is no more than partially feasible, in light of frequent contrary evidence.)
  Engineer Alan Scott’s life is saved by a lantern carved from the Starheart (see 1st Century BCE), and he uses it to become the original Green Lantern. ZHTL; SO v2 #18 <9.87>, Green Lantern v3 #19 <12.91>, GL Secret Files #1 <7.98> [confirms redating to 1939], and other retellings. (1st app. All-American #16 <7.40>.)
  [Spring] Wesley (Sandman) Dodds travels to England to pursue his relationship with a conflicted Dian Belmont, and briefly meets the imprisoned Morpheus (see 1916). Sandman Midnight Theatre #1 <9.95>
  Wes Dodds meets researcher Ted Knight while pursuing rogue scientist “Jonathan Smythe,” who later becomes the villainous Mist. SMT #37-40 <4-7.96>. Knight, of course, later becomes Starman.
  Brainiac finds Argo City floating in space and attacks, integrating it into Kandor (see 1937). Teenage Kara Zor-El escapes in a rocket, encased in Kryptonite rubble, headed for Earth (see 2007/Yr19). Action #869, Supergirl v5 #35 <1.09> [the events depicted do not quite match perfectly]. Date approximate. Action #867 captions Brainiac’s attack on Kandor as “35 years ago,” while in Supergirl #35 Kara, after three years on earth, says “I was trapped in Kryptonite for thirty years.” While neither figure can be taken at face value given other known facts of Superman’s backstory, nevertheless the net difference between them does point toward a rough estimate of time elapsed on Argo City, and it seems a good match for Kara’s differing ages there as depicted in the Supergirl flashback. Obviously Kara spends a longer time in hyperspace suspended animation than does Kal-El, arriving years later.
  [Jun 10] The Sandman and the Crimson Avenger join forces against the Phantom of the Fair, a villain terrorizing the New York World’s Fair, rescuing England’s visiting Royal Family from his murderous plot. SMT #41-44 <8-11.96>, apparently displacing the events chronicled in SO v2 #7 <10.86>. Date based on the historical royal visit. The 1939-’40 World’s Fair opened on April 30. Detective Jim Corrigan also appears in this tale, and the first known reference is made to the heroic activities of the Flash.
  Polish expatriate aviator Janos Prohaska visits New York seeking funds to aid the European resistance to the Nazis, and is framed for murder, but saved by the timely intervention of the Sandman and Dian Belmont. SMT #45-48 <12.96-3.97>
  Kent Thurston becomes the Invisible Hood. Starman v2 #2 <12.94>, confirming he existed canonically—and (a retcon) that he was killed in the 1970s by the Icicle and the Mist. (1st app. Smash Comics #1 <8.39>.)
  [Aug 14] Archaeology professor Dan Garrett recovers the ancient scarab amulet of Pharaoh Kha-Ef-Re (see 2578 BCE), and becomes the first Blue Beetle. SO v2 #2 <5.86>, Booster Gold v2 #2 <11.07> [provides exact date]; (orig. Blue Beetle v3 #1 <6.64>; Golden Age version 1st app. Mystery Men Comics #1 <8.39>, but that version has no actual relation to this one). The post-Crisis story in Infinity, Inc. v1 #43-44 <10-11.87> placed this Beetle in the 1960s, and the ZHTL placed him in Year One of the Silver Age, but this debut is canonical for “New Earth.” Details of his long career remain unchronicled, but he is known to have a present-day granddaughter, Danielle [BB v6 #8 <12.06]. That issue also establishes that the Scarab was found in Bialya, logically indicating that (like Kahndaq) Bialya is a small country carved out of what was once ancient Egypt.
  [Sep 1] In Europe, Nazi Germany invades Poland, beginning World War II. Historical record. Also, SO v2 #27.
  Janos Prohaska’s family is murdered in the invasion of Poland. Dubbing himself Blackhawk, Prohaska sets out to assemble an elite international fighter squadron. ZHTL; SO v2 #45 <10.89>; (1st app. Military Comics #1 <8.41>).
  Sandra Knight becomes the original Phantom Lady, the first female costumed hero. Starman v2 #44 <7.98> and Starman Secret Files #1 <4.98> establish her status as first woman hero and inspiration for her cousin Ted’s Starman identity, thus backdating her original debut (from Police Comics #1 <8.41>). Manhunter v3 #23 < 8.06> shows her cover-featured on an issue of Life magazine dated Sept. 16, 1939.
  [Oct 6] Archaeologist Carter Hall discovers that he is the reincarnation of the ancient Egyptian Prince Khufu (see 13th C. BCE), uses his secret “Nth Metal” to fashion an antigravity belt, and begins battling evil as the original Hawkman. ZHTL; SO v2 #11 <2.87> [gives date], Hawkworld Annual #1 <90>, Hawkman Annual #2 <95>; (1st app. Flash v1 #1). “Nth Metal” was derived from an ancient mystic artifact; it was developed, duplicated, and powered with secret assistance from Hall’s friend Perry Carter, who was actually Thanagarian scientist Paran Katar [see 1951, 1991/Yr3].
  Pvt. Hank Heywood becomes the cyborg called Steel. ZHTL; JSA v4 #2 <3.07>; (1st app. Steel, The Indestructible Man #1 <3.78>).
  Darrell Dane becomes Doll Man. ZHTL; SO v2 #8 <11.86>; (1st app. Feature #27 <12.39>.)
  Rod Gaynor revives the legend of a hero from the 1840s when he becomes The Whip. SO v2 #13 <4.87> [“late 1939”]; (1st app. Flash v1 #1).
  [Nov 20] Ted Knight becomes the original Starman, using his newly-invented Gravity Rod. ZHTL*; Starman v2 #9 <7.95> [gives revised date], Starman SF#1, among other retellings. (1st app. Adv. #61 <4.41>).
  [Dec 29-31] Rex Tyler, using an improved version of Miraclo, re-launches his career as Hourman, crossing paths with Sandman and the Crimson Avenger. ZHTL*; SMT #69-70 <1-2.99>—requiring a very slight adjustment of Hourman’s original “1940” debut date. Wes Dodds and Dian Belmont make a lifetime commitment to one another at this point, as they depart on an unchronicled mission to war-torn Europe, but they never marry.
  [Feb] The wizard Shazam relocates to Fawcett City and awakens Ibis the Invincible (see 2060 BCE). Power of Shazam #11-12 <1-2.96> [provides date]; (1st app. Whiz Comics #1 <2.40>.)
  Alan Armstrong becomes Spy Smasher. PoS #8 <10.95> confirms canonicity, among other sources; (1st app. Whiz #1).
  [Apr] Madame Xanadu (see 1888) engages in a short romance with Zatara. It ends when he finds himself in the middle of a conflict between her and the Phantom Stranger. She soon finds herself distraught with guilt at not preventing the origin of the Spectre (below), despite having foreseen it. Madame Xanadu v2 #9-10 <5-6.09>. Date derived from the fact that the story mentions the German push into Norway, which began on Apr 9, 1940. (Previous accounts of the Spectre’s origin have placed it slightly earlier.) It is soon after this that Mme Xanadu sets up her fortune-telling shop in Greenwich Village.
  New York cop Jim Corrigan is killed by gangsters, but his soul is directed by a heavenly Voice to return and confront evil, and becomes host to the Spectre. ZHTL* [says late 1939]; SO v2 #15 <6.87> [says Feb. 1940, as does JSA v3 #62 <8.04>], Spectre v3 #2-3 <2-3.93>, #0 <10.94>, Spectre Annual #1 <95>, among other retellings. (1st app. More Fun Comics #52-53 <2-3.40>.)
  Jim Barr becomes Bulletman. PoS #24 <2.97>; (1st app. Nickel Comics #1 <5.40>).
  Richard Grey becomes the original Black Condor, and soon assumes the identity of murdered Senator Thomas Wright. SO v2 #21 <12.87>; (1st app. Crack Comics #1 <5.40>; 1st use of the Senator’s ID: Crack #11 <3.41>.)
  Tom Halloway debuts as the apparently-heroic archer called the Spider. Canonicity confirmed per Shade mini-series #3 <6.97> and elsewhere; (1st app. Crack #1).
  The Red Torpedo debuts. Canonicity per SO v2 #26 <5.88>; (1st app. Crack #1).
  [May 11] The Blackhawk Squadron (Blackhawk, Stan Drozdowski, Ritter Hendricksen, Olaf Friedriksen, Andre Blanc-Dumont, Chuck Sirianni, and Weng “Chop-Chop” Chan) rescues a Dutch village from Nazi invaders. (Blackhawk v1 #251 <10.82>.) The first modern-era Blackhawk tale set in WW II. Although technically pre-Crisis, this and the remainder of the Evanier-Spiegle run (through #273 <11.84>) is set in 1940-’41, and (allowing for minor revisions in the characters) has no serious conflicts with the Chaykin mini-series [see 1943] and subsequent tales. It is well-regarded, and I believe it deserves to remain (at least provisionally) canonical.
  [May 27-Jun 4] The British evacuate their forces at Dunkirk as the Nazis overrun France. Olympic swimmer Libby Lawrence escapes by swimming the English Channel. Dunkirk from historical record; Libby Lawrence from All-Star Squadron #61 <9.86>.
  [Jul 7] On his 23rd birthday, Johnny Thunder discovers his mystic Thunderbolt. ZHTL; SO v2 #13; (1st app. Flash v1 #1). Johnny was born on the auspicious date of 7/7/17.
  Manipulated by the Lord of Order Nabu (see 3500 BCE, etc.), Kent Nelson becomes the sorcerer Doctor Fate. ZHTL; SO v2 #24 <3.88>; (1st app. More Fun #55 <5.40>).
  The Spectre first meets Dr. Fate. Spectre Annual #1
  District Attorney Rick Raleigh becomes the Red Bee. Starman v2 #37 <12.97> confirms his existence as canonical; (1st app. Hit Comics #1 <7.40>).
  Lost in the Sahara, Tom Corbet becomes Neon the Unknown. Canonicity per SO v2 #26, Uncle Sam & the Freedom Fighters v2 #6 <4.08>; (1st app. Hit #1).
  Magno debuts. Canonicity per SO v2 #26; (1st app. Smash #13 <8.40>).
  A smuggled German prototype atomic bomb devastates Blackhawk Island. (Blackhawk v1 #258 <5.83>). The earliest among the DCU’s many pre-Hiroshima atomic explosions. :) [See 1943.]
  The Crimson Avenger adopts a new costume. GASF #1; (orig. Detective #44 <10.40>; Wing follows suit in ’Tec #59 <1.42>).
  The Flash and Green Lantern are teamed up by the government to defeat the top-secret Alien X. Flash/GL: Faster Friends #1-2 <2-3.97>
  Madame Xanadu meets Dian Belmont while investigating the supernatural murders of local businessmen. Mme Xanadu #11-15 <7-11.09>. Date approximate: “four months” after she sets up shop, and still summery weather.
  After months of intensive training, 5' 2" college student Al Pratt debuts as the original Atom. ZHTL; SO v2 #25 <4.88>; (1st app. All-American #19-20
  [Autumn] The Shining Knight is awakened from 1,400 years of suspended animation in an ice floe (see 6th Century). During the London Blitz, he meets young Percy Sheldrake (his father captured at Dunkirk, his mother killed by the bombing), who later becomes his sometime-sidekick, the Squire. ZHTL*; A-SSq #62 <10.86>; (origin Adv. #66 <9.41>). Percy: Young All-Stars #22 <1.89>, #27 <7.89>. The Nazi Luftwaffe began its Blitz against London on Aug. 24, 1940, and from Sep. 7 to Nov. 15 bombed every night but one. After that the bombing became sporadic, ending in late spring 1941 (all told, over 30,000 were killed in London alone). This story therefore backdates Sir Justin’s debut from its original summer 1941 date.
  [Sep 27] The Axis Treaty is signed, uniting the fascist states of Germany, Italy and Japan against the Allies. Historical record, included for context.
  [Oct 12-13] Starman rescues the victims of Opal City’s disastrous Gladstone Towers fire. Starman v2 #9 [text page]
  [Oct] The mysterious Scarab (Louis Sendak) first appears, empowered by the Egyptian deity Khepri. He is active until 1944 (and reappears c. 2002/Yr14). ZHTL; Scarab #1-8 <11.93-6.94>.
  [Nov] Zoe Magnier, as Mlle. Marie (see 1791, 1942, etc.), serves with Charles de Gaulle at the Battle of Gabon in west Africa. Checkmate v2 #22 <3.08>. Date from historical record.
  [Nov 9] Eight top “mystery-men” team up to save England from Hitler’s invasion fleet, then rescue President Roosevelt from a mystic attack on his life. At the suggestion of FDR, they form the world’s first super-hero group: the Justice Society of America. ZHTL; SO v2 #31 <10.88> [gives dates]; (1st app. All-Star Comics #3 <Win.40>; origin, DC Special #29 <8-9.77>). Founding members are the Flash, Green Lantern, Dr. Fate, the Atom, Hawkman, Hourman, Sandman, and the Spectre.
  [Nov 22] The JSA holds its first official meeting. SO v2 #31; (1st app. A-SC #3). Its first HQ is in Gotham City.
  [Nov 22] “Tex” Thompson starts adventuring as Mr. America. SO v2 #29 <8.88> [gives date]; (1st app. Action #33 <2.41>; he had appeared as Tex since Action #1.).
  [Nov 26] On a mission from J. Edgar Hoover, the JSA defeats a group of Nazi Fifth Columnists led by conspirator Fritz Klaver. A-SSq #67 <3.87>; (retelling A-SC #4 <3-4.41>). Date based on the reference to meeting the FBI Chief “next Tuesday” after the JSA’s first formal meeting, above.
  Blackhawk’s life is spared by the Nazi femme fatale code-named Domino, but he is unable to prevent her death. (Blackhawk v1 #263 <10.83>.) It is plausible that this traumatic event contributed to Blackhawk’s more cynical attitude and womanizing ways in later years [see 1943].
  David Clark becomes the masked hero Midnight. Canonicity per SO v2 #28 <7.88>; (1st app. Smash #18 <1.41>).
  Jack Weston becomes Minute-Man. PoS #8 confirms canonicity, among other sources; (1st app. Master Comics #11 <2.41>). Not to be confused with the early incarnation of Uncle Sam [see 1776].
  The former Ahwehota goes public again as Quicksilver and meets fellow speedster Jay (Flash) Garrick. Flash SF #1; (1st app. National Comics #5 <11.40>). [See 1838, 1844, 1860s, 1891, 1921, 1937.]
  Sargon the Sorcerer takes the stage. ST v2 #50 <7.86>, SO v2 #27, and later appearances confirm his canonicity; (1st app. All-American #26 <5.41>).
  New York cop Chuck Lane becomes the Jester. Starman v2 #46 <9.98>; (1st app. Smash #22 <5.41>).
  Blinded, Dr. Charles McNider invents night-vision goggles that allow him to become Dr. Mid-Nite. ZHTL; SO v2 #20 <11.87>; (1st app. All-American #26 <6.41>).
  [Spring] When Nazis kill her family, Greek teenager Helena Kosmatos is transformed into Fury, empowered by the Eumenides (aka Erinyes), the Furies of myth. ZHTL; SO v2 #12 <3.87>. Greece surrendered to the Nazis on April 17, 1941.
  Shiera Saunders, girlfriend of Carter Hall, becomes his partner Hawkgirl. Hawkman Annual #2; (1st app. A-SC #5 <6-7.41>, origin Flash v1 #24 <12.41>). (Originally named Sanders; revised [per Sensation v2 #1 <5.99>, JSA Secret Files #1 <8.99>, etc.] to relate her to “Speed” Saunders [see 1937].)
  Roy Lincoln becomes the Human Bomb. Starman v2 #44, et al.; (1st app. Police #1).
  Small-time crook Patrick “Eel” O’Brian becomes Plastic Man. ZHTL [“8Years Ago”]; (orig. 1st app. Police #1). Plas’ post-Crisis origin, retold in Plastic Man mini-series #1-4 <11.88-2.89>, implied his career began in contemporary times… but recent anecdotal evidence, indicating he still dates back to the Golden Age, was formally confirmed by the DC Comics Encyclopedia <1stEd.2004>. Full name revealed in JLA #50 <4.01>.
  Flier Richard Dare of the RAF becomes known as “Captain X” (later the Aviator). Firestorm v2 #71 <5.88> and related appearances; (1st app. Star-Spangled Comics #1 <10.41>).
  The Shade, assisting Captain X on a mission in London, is unknowingly merged with his enemy Culp (see 1866) during a bomb blast. Starman v2 #66 <6.00>
  [Late spring] Joan Dale, transformed by the top-secret Project M, creates the heroic identity of Miss America. SO v2 #26/YA-S #12 <5.88> [gives date]; (1st app. Military #1).
  [Jun 30-Jul 1] The JSA (along with non-members Hawkgirl and Dr. Mid-Nite) encounters a mysterious infiltration of technology from the future, secretly engineered by future villain T.O. Morrow. When the Justice League follows to retrieve the devices, the JSA at first battles the heroes out of fear of their troubling future, but then joins forces with the League, undoing Morrow’s time alterations before they began. DC 2000 #1-2 <9-10.00>. The dates are given in the story. Morrow is shown and stated to be five years old in 1941. The JSA’s membership roster clearly places this tale between Hawkgirl’s debut [above] and Johnny Thunder’s induction [below].
  Johnny Thunder joins the JSA when the Flash steps down to “honorary member” status. Johnny is confirmed as a member in numerous post-Crisis appearances, e.g., SO v2 #31; (orig. A-SC #6 <8-9.41>).
  [Jul 4] Sylvester Pemberton III and his friend Pat Dugan team up to battle saboteurs as the Star-Spangled Kid and Stripesy. ZHTL; SO v2 #9; (1st app. Action #40 [promo] <9.41>, then Star-Spangled #1). Syl is only 11 or 12 at this point, younger than previously thought, per Stars & S.T.R.I.P.E. #9 <4.00> [see 1948].
  Starman has his first encounter with the Mist. Starman v2 #18 <4.96>; (1st app. Adv. #67 <10.41>).
  Hourman battles the evil scientist Dr. Rocco Togg and his Gombezis. Togg is transformed by his own “monstroscopic lamp,” and imprisoned for decades. Hourman #5 <8.99>, #10 <1.00>; (Dr. Togg 1st app. Adv. #57 <12.40>).
  “Singing Cowboy” Greg Saunders becomes the original Vigilante. ZHTL; (1st app. Action #42 <11.41>). Originally named Sanders, as with Hawkgirl (see above). His first partner, Billy Gunn, is soon replaced by Stuff, the Chinatown Kid (1st app. Action #45 <2.42>).
  Newsreel reporter Johnny Chambers uses a super-speed formula to become Johnny Quick. ZHTL; A-SSq #65 <1.87>; (1st app. More Fun #71 <9.41>).
  Boxing champion Ted Grant, seeking to clear his name after a death in the ring, and inspired by the exploits of Green Lantern, starts fighting crime as Wildcat. ZHTL; JSASF #1; (1st app. Sensation Comics #1 <1.42>). (The 1976 Super DC Calendar puts this at July 19, although dates from that source remain subject to being superseded by post-Crisis evidence. For discussion of Ted’s boxing career, see 1974.)
  Bored yet brilliant playboy Terry Sloane, former child prodigy (see 1928) and “man of 1,000 talents,” begins fighting for Fair Play as Mr. Terrific. ZHTL; (1st app. Sensation #1).
  [Sep 7] JSA chairman Green Lantern leads the team on a mission to raise $1 million for war orphans—a mission nearly derailed (all unknown to the team) by an attack from the future by the villain Extant, until his time disruptions are corrected by the young hero Impulse. Impulse: Bart Saves the Universe #1 <4.99>; (orig. story, A-SC #7 <10-11.41>). Date given in the story.
  [Sep 28?] The JSA (along with Dr. Mid-Nite, Starman, and Hawkgirl) battles the villainous Ian Karkull, who attemps to kill the next several U.S. presidents. Karkull’s chronal energies retard the aging of the heroes (plus Jay Garrick’s girlfriend Joan Williams). In the aftermath, Hourman takes a leave of absence to refine Miraclo; Green Lantern steps down to honorary status; and Hawkman becomes chairman. In recognition of their help, Starman and Dr. Mid-Nite are both invited to join the group, filling the vacancies. (Dr. Fate also changes to a half-helmet after this point, to avoid total domination by Nabu.) JSA #7 <2.00>; (All-Star Squadron Annual #3 <9.84>; 1st app. Karkull, More Fun #69 <7.41>; re: new members, A-SC #8 <12-1.42>). Judging by appearances in later decades, the JSAers’ aging seems to have been slowed to roughly 1/2 to 2/3 the natural rate. A seminal story, but technically we only have the pre-Crisis account; JSASF #1 (besides misdating the event to 1945) indicates that “a few… loved ones” were also present, but declines to name them. Fan speculation posits that “fallout” from this event may have spread far along the East Coast or even wider, affecting (to varying degrees) the aging of a much larger population. Further, the date originally given was June 28, but as the JSA’s roster indicates these events need to follow the T.O. Morrow and Impulse encounters [above], post-ZHTL stories which have conflicting dates, some revision appears necessary.
  The long-dead Keith Everet returns as the Grim Ghost. SO v2 #42 <7.89>; (1st app. Sensation #1). [See 1700.]
  Hourman confronts the “90-Minute Man,” a radium-powered robotic villain. All-Star 80-Pg Giant #1 <9.99>. No date is given, but this most likely occurred before Pearl Harbor, as Hourman was kidnapped by the Japanese at that point, and soon after his return (see early 1942) started using a Miraclo ray rather than a pill to activate his powers (Adv. #71 <2.42>, A-SSq #35 <7.84>).
  The spirit of America (see 1776, 1812, 1861, 1871) bonds to a human host and returns again as Uncle Sam. Spectre v3 #38 <2.96>, superseding SO v2 #27 <6.88>; (1st app. National #1 <7.40>).
  Former Olympic athlete Libby Lawrence (see 1940) becomes the heroine Liberty Belle. ZHTL; A-SSq #61 <9.86>; (1st app. Boy Commandos #1 <Win.42-43>).
  A second hero group forms: the non-powered Seven Soldiers of Victory, aka the Law’s Legionnaires. They combine forces to tackle the criminal mastermind “The Hand.” ZHTL; S&S #9, and others; (1st app. Leading Comics #1 <Win.41-42>). In revised continuity, the membership consists of the Shining Knight; the secretive archer called the Spider [see 1940]; the Star-Spangled Kid and Stripesy; the Vigilante and his partner Billy Gunn [per Infinity, Inc. v1 #51 <6.88>], soon replaced by Stuff [per YA-S #27 <7.89>]; and the Crimson Avenger, plus his partner Wing, the unoffical “Eighth Soldier.”
  [Oct 31] Dr. Robert Crane escapes death when his brain is transplanted into the original Robotman. ZHTL; A-SSq #63 <11.86> [gives date]; (1st app. Star-Spangled #7 <4.42>).
  Mystery writer Jonathan Law dons the costume of the Tarantula. ZHTL; A-SSq #66 <2.87>; (1st app. Star-Spangled #1). As retold pre-Crisis (in A-SSq #18 <12.82>), Dian Belmont died soon after inspiring Law’s heroic debut, with repercussions for the Sandman as well [see below]—but in current continuity she did not die at this time.
  Wes (Sandman) Dodds takes on a new crimefighting sidekick, young Sanderson “Sandy” Hawkins, nephew of his girlfriend Dian Belmont. ZHTL; All-Star v2 #1-2 <5.99>, JSASF #1; (1st app. Adv. #69 <12.41>). The teenage Sandy’s existence clearly remains canonical—notwithstanding implications to the contrary in SMT, nor the continued survival of Dian Belmont as seen in Starman v2 #20 <7.96>. Detailed explanations remain to be chronicled, however. (Sandman also did use his skintight yellow-and-purple costume in current history—but perhaps not until 1945, vs. its pre-Crisis adoption at this point.)
  Rod Reilly becomes the first Firebrand. ZHTL; (1st app. Police #1).
  The JSA retrieves a prototype “bomb defense formula” from the year 2442. Canonical per IInc. Annual #2 <88> (orig. A-SC #10 <4-5.42>; also A-SSq #2 <10.81>).
  Rookie cop Dan Richards is recruited as the heroic Manhunter by the secret Manhunter cult (see 1066). SO v2 #22 <1.88>; (1st app. Police #8 <3.42>). Richards is unaware of the cult or its nefarious ulterior motives. Manhunter v3 #13 <10.05> says the U.S. government was responsible for his origin; by way of reconciling this, we may suppose that the cult members were covertly working within the government.
  [Dec 7] The Japanese fleet attacks the American naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
• Uncle Sam gathers an ad hoc group of Freedom Fighters to repel the invasion, without success, and all the heroes involved are presumed dead.
• Lanford “Happy” Terrill becomes the golden age Ray, under circumstances influenced by the time-displaced 1990s Ray and Black Canary (see 2002/Yr14).
The United States enters World War II.
• President Roosevelt calls for the formation of a mega-group of heroes, the All-Star Squadron.
Historical record.

ZHTL*; SO v2 #26. The team includes Uncle Sam, Hourman, Miss America, the Invisible Hood, the Red Torpedo, Neon, and Magno. All but Magno are known to have survived.

The Ray #9-11 <2-4.95>; (1st app. Smash Comics #1 <9.40>). How Ray and Dinah’s time-travels managed to delay the first Ray’s origin for over a year is unclear.

ZHTL* [placing this in 1942!]; (JLofA v1 #183 <8.81> and A-SSq #1-4 <9-12.81>).
  [Dec 8] The All-Stars and JSA attempt to invade Japan, but are rebuffed from Axis territory by a mystic “Sphere of Influence” created using the Spear of Destiny (see 30 CE), controlled by Hitler, and the Holy Grail (see 980 CE), now in the hands of Japan's “Dragon King.” Spectre v3 #20 <7.94> [re: Spear], S&S #11 <6.00> [re: Grail]; (A-SSq #1-6 <9.81-2.82>, et seq.). The All-Star Squadron contains all active heroes of the time, at least nominally; the regulars come to include Liberty Belle (chair), Johnny Quick, Robotman, the Atom, Hawkman, the Shining Knight, Firebrand II, and the Tarantula. Note that in real history, Hitler did posess the Spear, and kept it in Nuremberg.
  [Dec 9] The JSA disbands as its members enlist in the armed services. (A-SSq #5 <1.82>; JSA disbanding orig. in A-SC #11 <6-7.42>.)
  [Dec 10] Danette Reilly replaces her injured brother Rod as Firebrand. DC Encyc; (A-SSq #5).
  FDR forms the OSS (Office of Special Services), headed by an agent code-named Control. SO v2 #14 <5.87> (1st app. G.I. Combat #192 <7.76>). The organization is from the historical record, but Control is strictly a DCU creation. In the real world the OSS wasn’t formed until June 13, 1942, but PoS #35 <1.98> confirms it was around by Feb. ’42 in the DCU.
  [Late Dec] The Manhunter cult secretly recruits another human agent, big-game hunter Paul Kirk. SO v2 #22 & YA-S #8 <1.88> [“a few weeks” after Dan Richards]; (1st app. Adv. #73 <4.42>). Both Manhunters were originally published independently of one another. Manhunter v3 #13 says the U.S. government was responsible for his origin; we may suppose that the cult members were covertly working within the government.
  U.S. soldier Rip Jagger, on duty in the Pacific, becomes the costumed Judomaster, accompanied by his young Japanese sidekick, Tiger. DC Heroes Secret Files #1 <2.99>; (1st app. Special War Series #44 <11.65>). Dated only “1941,” but presumably not predating America’s entry into the war.
History Notes and References
1942   ↑ top
  While costumed “mystery men” protect the home front, countless hardy combatants, often bizarre but still mortal, fight the forces of oppression overseas—the most distinguished undoubtedly being Sgt. Frank Rock and the men of Easy Company1. Other notable wartime figures include the Blackhawks (see 1939-40), the Haunted Tank2, the Losers3, Mlle. Marie4, the Unknown Soldier5, the Viking Commando (see 6th Century) 6, the Boy Commandos7, the Creature Commandos8, G.I. Robot9, the Ghost Patrol10, and Ulysses “Gravedigger” Hazard11, as well as Rick Flag and the original Suicide Squad12. ZHTL [“World War II”]. Respective origins/1st apps:
1(Our Army At War #81 <4.59>, orig. #128 <3.63>), 2(G.I. Combat #87 <4-5.61>, orig. #114 <10-11.65>), 3(G.I. Combat #138 <10-11.69>), 4(Star-Spangled War v2 #84 <8.59>), 5(Star-Spangled War v2 #151 <6-7.70>) & Unknown Soldier v2 #1-12 <Win.88-12.89>, v3 #1-4 <4-7.97>, 6(All-Out War #1 <9-10.79>), 7(’Tec #64 <6.42>), 8(Weird War #93 <11.80>), 9YA-S #12 <5.88> & (Weird War #101 <7.81>), 10(Flash v1 #29 <5.42>), 11(Men of War #1 <8.77>), 12[not mentioned in ZH] SO v2 #14 <5.87>; (B&B #25 <8-9.59>). (Note also the very helpful DC Heroes RPG World At War Sourcebook <1991>.) More history on some of these characters appears below. Just as with DC’s Western characters, a full chronological ordering of all their adventures may well be impossible, and at any rate is beyond the scope of this Chronology. Fortunately (for simplicity’s sake), the vast majority of those adventures were published pre-Crisis, and have never been referenced in post-Crisis reality.
  Thomas N. Thomas and Danny Dunbar become the explosive duo TNT and Dan the Dyna-Mite. ZHTL; (1st app. World’s Finest #5 <Spr.42>, origin Star-Spangled #7).
  The SSoV clash with the maniacal Dr. Doome (!) and his tyrants from throughout history. (A-SSq #29 <1.84>, told out-of-sequence, recapping Leading #3 <Sum.42>.) Technically pre-Crisis, but!…
  Flash, Green Lantern, The Atom, Wildcat, and police officer Jim Harper battle Starheart-possessed ex-boxer Joe Morgan, whom the latter three discover was responsible for training each of them. (A-SSq Annual #1 <11.82>.) Technically only chronicled pre-Crisis, again, but it ties tightly into each character’s origin.
  Jim Harper becomes the golden age Guardian, and takes on responsibility for the Newsboy Legion. ZHTL; SO v2 #19 <10.87>; (1st app. Star-Spangled #7 <4.42>).
  The JSA re-forms to protect the home front, but officially renames itself the Justice Battalion “for the duration,” taking orders from the War Department. (A-SC #11 <6-7.42>, A-SSq #21 <5.83>.) Technically pre-Crisis and thus possibly apocryphal, but nevertheless a major part of the team’s history that ought not be forgotten. Meanwhile the All-Stars make their permanent HQ in the Perisphere at this point, on the grounds of the recent New York World’s Fair.
  [Feb 9] 1936 Oympic medalist Will Everett becomes the golden age Amazing Man. ZHTL; JSA v4 #12 <3.08>; (1st app. A-SSq #23 <7.83>.) The character was named for comics great Bill Everett, and inspired by Jesse Owens.
  [Feb 9-10] Starman teams up with Bulletman on a covert mission to stop a Nazi incursion into Alaska—where the heroes encounter a scouting expedition by Venusian worms that is only curtailed by the timely intervention of GL Abin Sur. Meanwhile, several other All-Stars tackle saboteurs attempting to sink the U.S.S. Normandie in New York harbor. Starman v2 #39-40/PoS #35-36 <2-3.98>; dates in story. The overall story underlying these events interweaves with and reaffirms the (simultaneous) previous and next entries concerning the All-Star Squadron (an extended tale which also involved the Normandie sabotage, although some details are different); see the note immediately below. In actual history, the Normandie sank on this date.
  [Feb 10] The All-Stars, aided by the time-lost members of Infinity, Inc., as well as Amazing Man and Terry (Cyclotron) Curtis, defeat a complex, world-threatening, time-twisting plot by the Ultra-Humanite. Curtis gives his life in the battle, and the Atom is exposed to a large dose of radiation. Meanwhile, Dr. Fate’s original helmet is lost between dimensions. IInc. v1 #45 <12.87> (briefly reaffirming A-SSq #24-28 & Annual #2 <8-12.83>). This tale not only strongly involves the original Ultra-Humanite—it is also crucial to the histories of Dr. Fate, the first Atom, Nuklon, and the rest of Infinity, Inc. [see 1998/Yr10]. Thus, it seems likely that the revised version of the Ultra-Humanite presented in Legends of the DCU #1-3 <2-4.98> is non-canonical.
  [Feb 23] Uncle Sam interrupts the first full meeting of the All-Star Squadron, revealing the fate of his first Freedom Fighters (see 1941) and recruiting a new group to help repel a Japanese incursion on the West Coast. The effort succeeds, and Hourman is rescued from Nazi villain Baron Blitzkrieg’s captivity. SO v2 #26 (revising A-SSq #31-35 <3-7.84>); date in story. The new Freedom Fighters team includes Uncle Sam, the Black Condor, Doll Man, the Human Bomb, Phantom Lady, the Ray, and the Red Bee—who is killed in the battle, as reaffirmed by Starman v2 #37. (Baron’s 1st app.: World’s Finest v1 #246 <9.77>.)
  [Feb 27-28] Simone Michel-Levy, working with the Free French “Brotherhood of Notre Dame” as Mlle. Marie, is instrumental in the allied victory at Bruneval. Checkmate v2 #22. Date from historical record. Simone was a genuine historical figure of the French resistance, known by several pseudonyms. She was captured in Nov. 1943, and was eventually executed in April 1945.
  [Spring] A young G.I. in the South Pacific is disfigured by a grenade, and interred in a Japanese POW camp. After his rescue, with training in martial arts and disguise, he is coerced into working for Army Intelligence as codename: the Unknown Soldier, and soon becomes a legend among Axis and Allies alike. Unknown Soldier v2 #1-2, 6 <Win-Hol.88, 5.89>; (orig. Star-Spangled War v2 #154 <12-1.71>).
  [Mar 31] The All-Stars battle comic-strip characters come to life in Metropolis. A-SSq #64 <12.86> [flashback]; (originally a Superman tale, from Superman v1 #19 <11-12.42>).
  [Apr 1] Johnny Chambers and Libby Lawrence marry. The effects of the Crisis are felt in 1942. (A-SSq #50-57 <10.85-5.86>.) Not exactly as depicted, of course; no one traveled to alternate earths. [See 1999/Yr11.]
  The SSoV combat the Sense-Master. A-SSq #56 <4.86> (recapping Leading #4 <Aut.42>).
  The All-Stars encounter Mekanique, a feminine robot from the 23rd century, whose secret agenda is to alter the future in favor of her creator, the tyrant Rotwang. A-SSq #58-60 <6-8.86> (inspired by Fritz Lang’s film Metropolis (1927)).
  [Apr 26-30] TNT is killed. Dyna-Mite joins several other young heroes to form the Young All-Stars, an independent “youth auxiliary” of the main group. ZHTL; YA-S #1-3 <6-8.87>; dates given in story. The roster includes Arn “Iron” Munro, Fury, Flying Fox, Neptune Perkins, Tsunami, and Dyna-Mite, soon joined by the Tigress. (Perkins is a real Golden Age character; he 1st app. in Flash v1 #66 <9.45>!)
  The Freedom Fighters relocate to Washington, D.C. YA-S #2 <7.87>. The team (briefly) expands to include the Jester, the (Dan Richards) Manhunter, Midnight, Quicksilver, and the Spider, but later shrinks back to the core group—as indicated in Starman v2 #44 [see 1943].
  Neptune Perkins discovers he’s the grandson of Arthur Gordon Pym/Captain Nemo (see 1827, 1866). YA-S #16-17 <9-10.88>
  [Late May] Miss America, recovered from a coma, joins the JSA—as its secretary. YA-S Annual #1 <88>; her role here was originally intended as a post-Crisis replacement for Wonder Woman. Fan speculation suggests she may also have served as the team’s FBI liaison—logical, given her government connections.
  [Jun 3-6] The Battle of Midway occurs, a key turning point in the Pacific war. Data from historical record.
  [Jun 10-11] The Young All-Stars battle Baron Blitzkrieg when he attemps to kidnap Albert Einstein. YA-S #21-25 <Hol.88-4.89>. (This is a very rough analog to the pre-Crisis tale Superman vs. Wonder Woman <78>, which ended with Blitzkrieg dying in (yet another) early atomic blast; in current continuity, that didn’t happen.)
  The JSA provides “Food for Starving Patriots” in Europe, using a spell to resist the Sphere of Influence. YA-S #27 <7.89>; (orig. A-SC #14 <12-1.43>). The YA-S issue also recaps (briefly) solo adventures from (Action #52-53 <9-10.42>, All-American #43, Adv. #79, ’Tec #68, Flash #34, More Fun #84, and Star-Spangled #13, all <10.42>, and Sensation #11 <11.42>).
  The SSoV battle the super-rich criminal The Skull, and his criminal hirelings. YA-S #27 again (revising Leading #5 <Win.42-43>). This account shows Percy “Squire” Sheldrake [see 1940] as the “8th Soldier”; however, IInc. v1 #34 <1.87> [see 1954] indicates that he spent most of the war as a POW.
  The Young All-Stars disband and officially merge back into the main All-Star Squadron. YA-S #26-31 <6-11.89>. In #28, Arn Munro meets Georgia Challenger, granddaughter of Professor Challenger [see 1903], and tracks down his own father Hugo Danner [see 1894].
  [Jun 27] Firebrand, the Shining Knight, Dr. Fate, and Green Lantern defend Roosevelt and Churchill from an attack by a mystically-summoned Thor. All-Star 80-Pg Giant #1. Dr. Fate’s helmet is wrongly depicted. Whether this is the same Thor seen elsewhere, e.g., War of the Gods and/or Sandman, remains unclear, as the DCU’s mythic pantheons are not always consistently depicted.
  Time-travelling Katar Hol and Shayera Thal (see 2001/Yr13) help the Flash defeat their era’s Fiddler. Hawkworld Annual #1. Date not given, but the story is said to precede Flash’s first encounter with the Fiddler (which can be no later than below).
  [Jul 15] The Flash escapes a trap set by his own era’s Fiddler. Speed Force #1 <11.97>. Date given in story. (The Fiddler’s orig. 1st app. was in All-Flash #32 <12-1.48>.)
  [Jul 15] Time-travelling Wonder Woman III (Queen Hippolyta) and Jay Garrick (see 2004/Yr15) assist the JSA in defeating Nazi Baroness Paula Von Gunther, aka Dark Angel. Hippolyta decides to stay in the past; she joins the JSA and remains for the next eight years. WW v2 #130-133 <2-5.98>; date from Speed Force #1, which this story overlaps. This retcon of course minimizes the role of Miss America, who was herself retconned in to take the place of the pre-Crisis golden age Wonder Woman; future effects remain to be seen. Note that the JSA is depicted operating out of the Smithsonian Institution in this story.
  [Jul] Adventurer Tex “Mr. America” Thompson (see 1940) goes undercover as the “Americommando.” SO v2 #29 [gives date]; (orig. Action #52 <9.42>).
  Hippolyta meets and becomes a mentor to Fury (Helena Kosmatos). Helena comes to think of her as the reincarnation of her own dead mother (see 1941). LDCU #31 <8.00>. This story erroneously describes Hippolyta’s stay in the 1940s as lasting only two years.
  An injured young orphan is granted supernatural powers by the mysterious Mr. Keeper (secretly a Lord of Chaos), and becomes Kid Eternity (see 1961). Kid Eternity #1-3 mini-series <4-10.91>, Kid Eternity v3 #1 <5.93> et seq., Who’s Who in the DC Universe v2 <8.90-2.92>; (1st app. Hit #25 <12.42>). (Occurs on Aug. 23, according to the 1976 DC Calendar.)
  [Autumn] The Blackhawks meet the Boy Commandos fighting Nazis in Egypt. Brave & Bold v4 #9 <2.08>. Date based on the actual Egyptian campaign. The team includes Lady Blackhawk (Zinda Blake), her chronologically earliest known appearance [see 1959]. However, it’s worth noting that the Blackhawk tale in (Military #20 <7.43>) featured a female character who looked and acted much like Zinda Blake, though never named as such; that story could plausibly be backdated to before this point.
  Wonder Woman (Hippolyta) confronts Nazi General Helmut Streicher, aka the Red Panzer. Girlfrenzy: Donna Troy #1 <6.98>; (reaffirming WW v1 #228-229 <2-3.77>). Streicher was the same officer who (as a Major) captured Flash and GL in the JSA’s origin tale [see 1940]. While Wonder Woman’s restoration to the war years means that some of her 1970s-published WWII-era adventures can be salvaged (see 1943 and 1945), most (e.g., #233-240 and 1978’s WW Spectacular) are set too early (before July 1942) and/or feature characters and concepts that remain firmly non-canonical—as is also the case with virtually all of her original Golden Age appearances.
  Wonder Woman, Sandman, and Hawkman combat the mystic Kali Gari. All-Star 80-Pg Giant #1. Date is speculative. Sandman is (correctly?) shown in his suit and gas mask, but Hawkman is shown in the cloth mask he didn’t adopt until (A-SC #42 <8-9.48>), well after the war (and Sandman’s retirement).
  Wonder Woman and Inza Cramer (Kent Nelson’s girlfriend) gather Hawkgirl, Dian Belmont, and the other JSAers’ girlfriends to rescue the male heroes when they are captured by Brain Wave. Starman v2 #69 <9.00>; (orig. A-SC #15 <2-3.43>, Brain Wave’s 1st published app.). Hippolyta’s costume is mis-portrayed in Ted Knight’s retelling of these events, and he erroneously recalls this as Hawkgirl’s first outing. Sandman is portrayed in his yellow-and-purple costume. In the aftermath, the heroes’ IDs are mystically erased from the memories of those women who didn’t already know them.
  Dr. Mid-Nite and Wildcat help an overly impulsive Atom take on the Gambler and the Sportsmaster. All-Star 80-Pg Giant #1. 1943’s New Year is shown in the story, although the foliage shown seems to conflict. Al Pratt would (correctly) still have been a college student at this time; however, Wildcat was not yet an actual member of the JSA. (Moreover, the Gambler originally 1st app. in Green Lantern v1 #12 <Spr.44>, while the Sportsmaster 1st app. in All-American #85 <5.47>.)
  [Jan 18-30] The JSA takes on the brilliant but (literally) power-hungry Lord Dynamo, with an assist from science fiction writer Jack Williamson. JSA: Stange Adventures #1-6 <10.04-3.05>. A radio broadcast on the story’s first day, in issue #1, mentions the Russians breaking the siege of Leningrad, which occurred historically on Jan. 18, 1943. (For reasons unexplained, not only Wildcat and Mr. Terrific but also Star-Spangled Kid and Dr. Occult (!) are shown as JSA members, albeit mostly in a background capacity).
  The alien goddess Osira brainwashes JSAers Atom, Johnny Thunder, Sandman, Starman, and non-member Mr. Terrific into battling Wonder Woman. Reaffirmed as of Osira’s appearance in WW v3 #2 <9.06>; (orig. WW v1 #231-232 <5-6.77>). Date approximate. Plausible as told but for minor details (e.g., Steve Trevor). Sandman is (correctly?) depicted in his suit and gas mask.
  [Spring] The JSA again defeats its recurring nemesis Brain Wave, and drops the name “Justice Batallion.” (A-SC #17 <6-7.43>). Pre-Crisis, but Brain Wave’s canonical existence is well established [see above]. The JSA also relocates its headquarters from Washington to New York after this adventure.
  [Jun] The time-displaced Superman (see 2001/Yr13) saves FDR from a Nazi assassin; then, sent to Warsaw by the Spectre, detonates a German atomic bomb prototype. Action #663 & Superman #54—“Time & Time Again, p. II-III,” <3-4.91>; date in story. This is something done by various heroes in several other stories, as well (clearly the Germans had quite an atomic program!); see, e.g., the Blackhawks, both above [1940] and below [1943].
  [Summer] Wonder Woman teams with Liberty Belle, Phantom Lady, and the Red Tornado (Ma Hunkle!) to defeat Fifth Columnist saboteurs. All-Star 80-Pg Giant #1. Date approximate. Note that the message to the JSA comes to the Perisphere, in New York, implying the team’s HQ is located there at this point (as is the Squadron’s).
  [Jul 9] The tide begins to turn in the war as British and U.S. forces successfully invade Axis-held Sicily. Historical record. In the DCU, Sgt. Rock and Easy Company take part in the thrust through North Africa into Italy (OAAW #128 <6.63>, and other sources). Writer Robert Kanigher often indicated (although not in-story) that Rock and Easy were part of the famous 1st Infantry Division, the “Big Red One,” given how widely they fought throughout the European Theater of Operations.
  Time-traveler Walker Gabriel is caught in the midst of combat on Dragon (Dinosaur?) Island (see 1927). Chronos #1 <3.98> [text page], DCHSF #1.
  Confronting mysterious new villain “the Prairie Witch,” Starman befriends rookie cop Billy O’Dare. Starman v2 #1 <11.94>, Starman Annual #1 <96>. Note that the Prairie Witch was not a Golden Age villain.
  Green Lantern first encounters Vandal Savage, attempting to infiltrate high-level U.S. war councils. WWho v2, JSA Classified #11 <6.06>; (GL v1 #10 <Win.43>, Savage’s historical 1st app.). See 48,000 BCE and many subsequent entries.
  [Aug] The Blackhawks visit the U.S. to protect their government funding from political attacks. Stan dies in battle with the Nazi White Lion squadron. Natalie Reed informally joins the team as “Lady Blackhawk.” The team saves Manhattan from a German atomic bomb prototype. Blackhawk mini-series [v2] #1-3 <3-5.88>; date in story. Chaykin’s portrayals are much darker than earlier versions, but that doesn’t necessarily invalidate everything that had gone before. The first published Lady Blackhawk—Zinda Blake, from (Blackhawk v1 #133 <2.59>), and more recently seen in Guy Gardner: Warrior #24 <9.94> et seq.— would thus be the second [see 1959]. Note however that she’s now been retconned into WWII as well, as of Birds of Prey #75 <12.04> [and see 1942]. Therefore, precedence once again appears to be hers… but her whereabouts at this point remain unknown.
  [Sep 8] Fascist Italy surrenders to the Allies. German forces fight on, however. Historical record.
  Sgt. Rock and Easy Co. parachute into Vilnius, Lithuania, between German and Russian lines, to escort an influential young rabbi to Estonia and his escape to the west. Sgt. Rock: The Prophecy #1-6 <3-8.06>. The only date in the story is “1943,” but dialogue establishes it is shortly after the Allied invasion of Italy. (Other references seem to suggest that thebattles for Leningrad and/or Stalingrad are relatively recent, even though they began in July 1941 and May 1942 respectively … but the Italy reference is the most concrete.)
  [Oct] Wonder Woman (time-lost from 2006/Yr18) disguises herself as the heroine Miss America and teams up with her mother Hippolyta to keep Nazi agents (aided by Atlantean Queen Clea) from stealing Poseidon’s horn and trident. WW v2 #184-185 <10-11.02>; date in story. Miss America is shown to be New York-based; Polly is shown to be based out of D.C., rooming with a Diana Prince (!), and in a relationship with Wildcat at the time. (Clea and her daughter Ptra orig. 1st app. WW v1 #8 <Spr.44>.)
  [Oct 31–Nov 10] Phantom Lady helps Starman win a rematch with the Prairie Witch. Starman v2 #44; dates in story (incorrectly marked “1944” on the cover). Discussing the Freedom Fighters, Sandra mentions only Uncle Sam, the Ray, Black Condor, Doll Man, and the Human Bob as members.
  Phantom Lady discovers she’s pregnant with Iron Munro’s baby—just when the budding romance between the two is on the rocks. She turns to Al (Atom) Pratt for support. He helps arrange an adoption, and eight months later he’s mistakenly listed as the father. Manhunter v3 #23 <8.05>. Date approximate: the All-Star Squadron is still together, Al is still wearing his original costume, and the present-day Sandra Knight describes it as “thirty years” before abortion was legalized. The baby will grow up to be the biological father of Kate (Manhunter V) Spencer —and a violent criminal.
  [Spring] A time-travel adventure marks Dr. Fate and Sandman’s last recorded Golden Age case as active JSA members. (A-SC #21 <Sum.44>.) Pre-Crisis, but noteworthy due to the membership shift—although latter-day retcons have shown these and other “inactive” members working with the team on occasion.
  The JSA is attacked by a Fear-Creature during a meeting with FDR. GL: Fear Itself GN <6.99>. Date uncertain—the president describes his “fear itself” speech (from his first Inaugural, in 1933) as “a decade ago” —but the membership roster (with Starman, but sans Fate and Sandman) suggests this period.
  [Apr] Mr. Terrific fends off an attack from Black Barax (see 33rd C.)—aided by Mr. Terrific II and Hawkgirl II (from 2007/Yr19), plus the Freedom Fighters. JSA v3 #41-42 <12.02-1.03>; date in story. The FF roster includes the Nov ’43 membership (above), plus Miss America, the male Firebrand, and an inexplicably living Red Bee [see 1942]. (Barax 1st app. Sensation #28 <4.44>.)
  Sandman saves Starman from the villainous Gambler. Starman v2 #21-22 <8-9.96>. Note that at this point Sandman is (yet again) still wearing his suit and gas-mask.
  Sandman’s sidekick Sandy, fighting alongside his mentor and the JSA against Opal City criminal Johnny Sorrow, accidentally destroy’s Sorrow’s body. JSA v3 #18 <1.01>. Only the year is given in the story. Note that Sandman is once again depicted in suit and gas mask.
  [Jun 5] The Free French maquisards take up arms on the Vercors Plateau to slow down the German army approaching Normandy. They are aided by Anais Guillot, aka Mademoiselle Marie. Checkmate v2 #22. Date from the historical record. This is the most famous Mlle. Marie, and until recently was thought to have been the only one [but see 1791, 1830, 1916, 1940, 1942], although her true name was never previously revealed. It is she who briefly romanced Sgt. Rock (assuming of course that the various Maries were only sequential, never simultaneous).
  [Jun 6] The Allies open up a second front in Europe with the D-Day invasion of Axis-held France. Sgt. Rock and Easy Company are part of the landing at Omaha Beach. Historical record. Rock from Sgt. Rock: The Lost Battalion #1 <1.09>, which also establishes that at this time (but not later) Easy was indeed operating as part of the 1st Infantry Division [see 1943]. Rock is stated to have received a Distinguished Service Cross for his action on this date. (There were also accounts, possibly apocryphal, in the pre-Crisis DCU—notably Showcase #45 <7-8.63>, which however shows Rock as a private, contradicting other accounts of how he earned his stripes, e.g, OAAW #190 <1.60>—and/or B&B v1 #84 <6-7.69>, which however involves Batman.)
  American G.I. Joseph Jones, injured in France, becomes the super-patriotic hero General Glory. JL #48-50 <3-5.91>, WWho v2. Date approximate, the earliest possible given the setting. Not an original Golden Age character.
  Green Lantern first confronts Solomon Grundy (see 1894). IInc. v1 #39 <6.87>, GL: Brightest Day/Blackest Night <8.02>; (All-American #61 <10.44>).
  Sgt. Rock meets Mlle. Marie, beginning an on-again-off-again romance. Checkmate v2 #22, confirming (by pictorial reference) (OAAW #115 <2.62>), the characters’ first meeting. Date approximate.
  Sgt. Rock and Easy Co. meet and join forces with Jeb Stuart and the Haunted Tank to help flyer Johnny Cloud (later of the Losers) rescue an informant—who turns out to be Mlle. Marie. Checkmate v2 #22, confirming (by pictorial reference) (B&B v1 #52 <2-3.64>). Date approximate.
  [Autumn?] Starman meets Etrigan the Demon during a confrontation with Nazi saboteurs. Starman v2 #42 <5.98>. The date is “within a year” before the Hiroshima bombing, according to Etrigan’s rhyme.
  [Sep] The time-displaced Captain Atom and Monarch clash in the South Pacific, before returning to their present (see 1906, 2001/Yr13). Arm:AA #4 <2.92>. The energy source for their final time-hop is (yet another!) prototype atomic bomb.
  Paul (Manhunter) Kirk gives up his costumed identity to fight behind enemy lines for the OSS. SO v2 #22. Date approximate (year only).
  Mlle. Marie crosses paths with the Unknown Soldier. Checkmate v2#22 [pictorial reference]. Date approximate. (It is unclear if any specific story is meant to be evoked here. Marie first met the Soldier in Star-Spangled War #198-200 <4-7.76> [dated only “1944”], and again in DC Super-Stars #15 <7-8.77> and Unknown Soldier v1 #250 <4.81>, but the image shown does not seem to correspond to any of those stories.)
  The JSA defeats the original Psycho-Pirate (Charley Halstead), in the Spectre and Starman’s last recorded Golden Age case as active members. (A-SC #23 <Win.44>); technically pre-Crisis, but again significant to later chronicled events due to the membership change.
  [Oct 7] Mlle. Marie (Anais Guillot) is executed by a Nazi firing squad at Fontevraud, France. The identity is adopted (and her mission completed) by the teenage Sabine Roth. Checkmate v2 #22. Roth is certainly the longest-lived Marie, still alive as of 2000/Yr12, and is apparently the Marie in any WW II appearances set after this date.
  Johnny Sorrow returns, his life changed (and body altered) by the King of Tears, lord of the unearthly “Subtle Realms". Seeking revenge against Sandy and the JSA, Sorrow kills the Chicago hero team the Seven Shadows, teammates of the Scarab (see 1941). JSASF #1, JSA v3 #18; set six months after Sorrow’s “death” above. The Seven Shadows as yet have no history beyond this story.
  [Oct 23-30] Sgt. Rock and Easy Company are trapped behind enemy lines in the Foret de Champ of France’s Vosges Mountains, alongside the “lost” 1st Battalion of the 141st Infantry Regiment, 36th Division. Sgt. Rock: The Lost Battalion #1-6 <1-6.09>. The “lost Battalion" incident is a matter of historical record, although of course the involvement of Easy (as well as the Haunted Tank and Johnny Cloud) is a fictional addition. The story establishes that Easy (at least, Rock’s core squad) was assigned to different regiments at different times, and states that by Nov. 11 they had been requested by Audie Murphy’s 15th Infantry Regiment of the 3rd Division. (Murphy was injured at that time, however, so it’s possible that they didn’t assume that duty immediately, but instead after his return to command in late Jan. 1945.)
  [Nov] Gangster Bugsy Siegel kills Danny “Stuff” Leong, the Vigilante’s sidekick, setting the Vigilante on a vendetta against Siegel (see 1945, 1947). Vigilante: City Lights, Prairie Justice #1 <11.95>. Date in story. Note that Stuff’s name had earlier been given as Victor Leong [see WWho v2]; we may suppose that the role of Stuff was assumed by Victor after the death here of Danny, his brother.
  [Late Nov] Sgt. Rock and Easy Company take part in the brutal, costly capture of the Hürtgen forest, on the Belgian/German border. Sgt. Rock: Between Hell and a Hard Place GN <2003>. One of the very few Rock tales that is post-Crisis and thus incontrovertibly canonical. Date from historical battle, as noted in the story.
  [Late Dec] The JSA (including Miss America) fights alongside Resurrection Man (see 40,000 BCE) against Nazis and Vandal Savage in Belgium’s Ardennes Forest during the Battle of the Bulge. DCVSF #1; the battle is not named, but clearly intended. How the JSA evades the Axis’ mystic Sphere of Influence is not explained. It may be at this point that Savage begins collecting cell samples from the JSAers for future experimentation, as described in Damage #12 <4.95>. Note also that Sandman is still depicted wearing a suit.
  [Late Dec] Sgt. Rock and Easy Co., among many others, participate in the Battle of the Bulge, resisting Hitler’s last major offensive. Sgt. Rock Special #2 <94>. They do not cross paths with the superhuman combatants above. (It was a very large battle. It began on Dec 16 and lasted for weeks, although the fiercest fighting was in the first few days.)
  [Winter] Rā’s al Ghūl, serving in the S.S., leaves his daughter Nyssa (see 1809, 2007/Yr19) to the depredations of the Ravensbruck Concentration Camp. Batman: Death & The Maidens #5 <2.04>. While this may seem to contradict Rā’s’ role in the Pacific theater [see below], note that he specifically disclaims any admiration for Hitler’s agenda—only for his mechanism. When that “mechanism” crumbles, it would be not unlike Rā’s to shift sides with the prevailing winds before the end of the war.
  [Winter] In a fight alongside Zatara against the sorcerous “King Inferno,” Wildcat gains “nine lives.” JLA #31 <7.99>, JSA v3 #10 <1.00>; exact details described in JSA v3 #53 <12.03>.
  On a South Pacific island, the Spectre flies into a righteous rage at the depredations of a Japanese POW camp, and threatens to pass judgement on the entire earth. Starman talks him out of it, showing him a U.S. Japanese internment camp—which almost aggravates his anger, until he discovers hope there as well. All-Star 80-Pg Giant #1. Date not explicit, but note the New York headquarters, and Mr. Terrific’s presence there [see below]. The Japanese internment camps were technically ordered closed on Jan. 2, 1945, but many remained open for months longer. This case may also help explain Starman and Spectre’s reduced level of activity thereafter. It also includes Hourman, apparently rejoining his former teammates after being inactive since 1943.
  On another South Pacific island, the JSA rescues stranded pilot Derek Trevor, who soon falls in love with Miss America. IInc. v1 #48-49 <3-4.88>. She stays behind to oversee his recuperation—thus explaining her absence during the Stalker crisis that follows [below].
  Mr. Terrific and Wildcat are inducted into the JSA, and Flash and Green Lantern agree to return from “honorary” status and resume more active duties. A-SC v2 #1 <5.99>, by implication [indicating Terry and Ted are “reserve” members]; (orig. A-SC #24 <Spr.45>; again a pre-Crisis tale that’s significant due to the roster change).
  [Feb] Seven Nazi agents are empowered to destroy all life on earth by the insane mystic Stalker. All available members of the JSA join forces to defeat them, taking the heroes to numerous far-flung historical locales (as detailed in the following entries): A-SC v2 #1; (Stalker 1st app. Stalker #1 <6.75>). Dates from the historical record. The reserve, inactive, and honorary members participate in this case, as do some non-members, but Miss America is apparently not involved.
  [Feb 11] On the last day of the Yalta conference, GL and Johnny Thunder rescue Churchill, FDR, and Stalin from one of Stalker’s agents. All-American v2 #1 <5.99>. Yalta ran from Feb 4 to Feb 11.
  [Feb 13-14] In firebombed Dresden, Flash and Mr. Terrific witness the death of the Americommando. National v2 #1 <5.99>
  • Dr. Mid-Nite and Hourman defeat a Stalker disciple in Scotland. Smash v2 #1 <5.99>
  [Feb 22] Hawkgirl and Wonder Woman, along with “Speed” Saunders, join in the battle at Iwo Jima. Sensation v2 #1 <5.99>. The Marines’ invasion of Iwo Jima began on Feb 19.
  • Starman and the Atom take the fight to Los Alamos, NM, where Atom is again exposed to intense radiation (cf. 1942). Adventure v2 #1 <5.99>
  • In New York, non-members Star-Spangled Kid and Stripesy, plus “King” Standish, help Sandman and Sandy defeat another Stalker agent. Star-Spangled v2 #1 <5.99>. Sandman is very expressly shown wearing his yellow costume [finally: see 1941]. (“King” 1st app. Flash v1 #3 <3.40>.)
  • Hawkman and Wildcat, plus Tigress and Paul (Manhunter) Kirk, defeat Stalker’s agent in Angola. Thrilling v2 #1 <5.99>
  • The Stalker is finally defeated by the previously-unknown power of Hourman’s hourglass (see 1919). A-SC v2 #2 <5.99>
  • Dr. Occult, wounded in the battle, is saved by merging with Rose Psychic; thereafter both souls share one (changeable) body. Vertigo Visions: Dr. Occult #1 <7.94> [background on fusion], Superman Annual #7 <95> [alternate account of merging], A-SC v2 #2.
  [Apr] The JSAers save FDR from yet another Nazi assassination attempt… but within days they find themselves in mourning nevertheless, when he dies of natural causes. JSA v2 #6 <1.93>. Historically, FDR died on April 12, 1945—just weeks before the end of the war in Europe.
  [Apr 15] The JSAers serve as honor guards at FDR’s funeral. They are then summoned by the Spectre to combat Hitler’s last-ditch attempt to destroy the world by invoking Ragnarok with the Spear of Destiny—and they fail… in a hypertimeline averted only by the intervention of their future selves (see 1999/Yr11). Last Days of the JSA special <86>. Date of funderal from historical record. The story states that this was the last time in the 1940s that all the past and present members of the JSA appeared together.
  [Apr] After a long struggle with his conscience, Hans von Hammer (see 1914) surrenders his unit to the Allies. Enemy Ace: War in Heaven #2 <6.01>. It is Sgt. Rock’s Easy Company, approaching Berlin, that accepts his surrender. Von Hammer survives until 1969: Enemy Ace: War Idyll GN <1990>.
  [Apr 30] Adolf Hitler dies in Berlin—slain in his own bunker by the Unknown Soldier, although history records the death as a suicide. The Soldier himself seemingly perishes saving a young girl from a bomb. WWho v1 #24 <2.87>; (orig. Unknown Soldier #268 <10.82>). Date from historical record.
  [May 1-2] Swamp Thing, travelling backward through time (see 1917, 2001/Yr13), thwarts the last-ditch plans of Nazi Anton Arcane. The effort is aided by Sgt. Rock and Easy Company… and, covertly serving as their medic, the Unknown Soldier. ST v2 #82 <1.89>
  [May 7] Germany surrenders.
[May 8] The Allies declare “V-E Day,” celebrating victory in Europe.
Historical record.
  [May] Horrified by what he sees at the liberated concentration camp at Dachau, the Unknown Soldier sets aside any thoughts of retirement, rededicating himself to intelligence work and the U.S. interest. Unknown Soldier v3 #1 <4.97>
  [May] On a European inspection tour with the JSA, the Spectre is also horrified by the Nazis’ concentration camp atrocities, and once again flies into a judgmental rage, restrained only by his most powerful teammates. Spectre v3 #20 <7.94>; date given in story.
  [June] Pursuing Bugsy Siegel, the Vigilante is nearly killed by an explosion set by the villainous Dummy. Vigilante: CL, PJ #2 <12.95>; date given in story.
  [June] Bulletman, Spy Smasher, and Minute-Man take on an unrepentant Captain Nazi. PoS #8; flashback date given in story.
  [Aug 6] The U.S. drops an atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima.
• Two agents of Rā’s al Ghūl’s organization (which has been opposing the Japanese) are unfortunate enough to be undercover in Hiroshima. Their orphaned adolescent son descends into bitterness and anger, and adopts the name Qayin.
Historical record. Even in the DCU, this is the first publicly known detonation of an atomic bomb, notwithstanding various earlier incidents [see 1940, ’43, ’44].
Batman: Son of the Demon GN <87>. It is not until many years later, however (c. the mid-1970s—appearances in this story notwithstanding), that Qayin causes the death of Rā’s’ wife Melisande, flees the organization, and becomes a terrorist. This delay is a necessary result of data about Talia’s age [see 1969].
  [Aug 9] The U.S. drops another atomic bomb, this time on Nagasaki.
[Aug 14] Japan unconditionally surrenders, ending World War II.
[Aug 15] The Allies celebrate “V-J Day,” for victory in Japan, marking the end of World War II.
Historical record.

Historical record. (Note that the formal documents of surrender, however, were technically signed on Sep 2.)

In the DCU, the All-Star Squadron presumably disbanded at this time, or soon thereafter.
  Sgt. Rock perishes, felled by the last enemy bullet fired in the closing days of the war. Details are conjecture, based on remarks by the character’s writer Robert Kanigher (Sgt. Rock #316 <5.78>, #323 <12.78>, #347 <12.80> [text pages]); actual story never chronicled. However, Suicide Squad v2 #12 <10.02> verifies that “Frank Rock and Bulldozer died in 1945.” What this means for scattered post-war appearances of either one (see 2005/Yr17 especially) remains unclear.
  Shortly after his Army discharge, “Frank Rock” kills his nemesis the Iron Major while on a covert mission in Argentina for the Unknown Soldier. SSquad v2 #4 <2.02>. Appearances notwithstanding, later evidence (see above) suggests that this is not in fact the authentic Rock; indeed, the whole story may be apocryphal.
  With the war over, Hippolyta contemplates returning home, but her teammates persuade her to remain in the 1940s. (A speculative reinterpretation of WW v1 #242 <4.78>, in which Hippolyta summoned the golden age Diana home to Paradise Island.)
  The Vigilante is bitten by werewolves, but manages to keep the condition in remission. SS: Bulleteer #2 <2.06>. Date approximate; described as “four years into his career” in costume.
  [Oct 9] The Flash is awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for his wartime heroics. Flash Annual #3 <7.89>
  [Dec] When his sidekick Tiger is refused admission to the U.S., Rip Jagger (see 1941) decides to stay in Asia. L.A.W. #4 <12.99>
History Notes and References
1946   ↑ top
  The American Talisman (see 1776) is shattered, and Uncle Sam disappears. Spectre v3 #38. All post-war appearances of Uncle Sam are therefore presumably non-canonical (e.g., Hawk & Dove v3 #28 <9.91>, JLA:Year One #12 <12.98>) until he reappears in 2006/Yr18 (although he re-forms as The Patriot in 2003/Yr15, in the Spectre tale cited above, and appears as such during Our Worlds At War in 2005/Yr17).
  Ted (Starman) Knight suffers an emotional collapse from guilt over his role in creating the atomic bomb. Starman SF, Starman v2 #42. (His last Golden Age tale appeared in Adv. #102 <2-3.46>.)
  Hawkman and Hawkgirl discover the hidden arctic land of Feithera, home to a race of bird-people (see 3000 BCE). WWho v2. Otherwise technically pre-Crisis, but this is necessary to the heritage of Northwind, a post-Crisis member of Infinity, Inc. (Retold IInc. #4 <6.84>, 1st app. Flash v1 #71 <5.46>).
  [Spring] The JSA battles Landor, a villain from the 25th century. (A-SC #29 <6-7.46>.) Possibly apocryphal, but neat. :-)
  Returning home to Smallville, Kansas, after being thought lost in the war, young Jonathan Kent finds his first love Martha Clark married, but courts and ultimately weds her himself after she is widowed. World of Smallville #1 <4.88>. The story reveals that Martha married Dan Fordman on Sept. 30, 1944. There are those who assume this story is now apocryphal due to its implications for Jonathan Kent’s age, but in fact it has never been clearly superseded or disavowed.
  The “Knight Dependents Bill” is passed into law, allowing (among other things) individuals who meet certain education requirements to run for the House of Representatives at age 20 rather than 25. SO v2 #20 <11.87>; this fictitious law (which in reality would have to be a Constitutional amendment) was invented solely in order to keep Barbara Gordon retroactively young despite her term in Congress [see 1996/Yr8].
  [Sep 2] Former Manhunter Paul Kirk seemingly dies while on safari in Africa (but is actually placed in suspended animation by the mysterious “Council”). SO v2 #22; (orig. Detective #438-439 <12-1 & 2-3.74>; date in story). Kirk is later revived [see 1996/Yr8].
  *“47 Years Ago” according to the ZHTL —but from this point forward, I have converted the ZHTL’s “relative” dates to real dates, for clarity’s sake. *Directly following WW II, the obvious intended date of ZH to count back from remains 1994, when it was published… but for Silver Age events, the ZH anchor date [see 2002/Yr14] unavoidably still “slides forward.”
  The JSA defeats Solomon Grundy, who is exiled to the moon. IInc. v1 #39 (recapping A-SC #33 <2-3.47>, as part of Grundy’s history).
  The JSA has the first (?) of several encounters with the time-altering Per Degaton. (See also 331 BCE.) YA-S Annual #1 <88> (recalling Degaton’s historical 1st app., A-SC #35 <6-7.47>). The story also confirms that the JSA is (again) operating out of Gotham at this point.
  Repeatedly regaining his memory after his defeat, Degaton tries again (and again) to steal his employer Professor Zee’s time machine and change history to his advantage—ultimately creating a chronal duplicate of himself that disappears into the future with the machine. YA-S Annual #1 and IInc. Annual #2 <88>. Some of Degaton’s other attempts may now be non-canonical; e.g., his involvement in the All-Star Squadron’s origins (see 1941) and in the Squadron’s meeting with the Justice League (see 1998/Yr10).
  As many other heroes are ending their careers, Dinah Drake begins hers… as the original Black Canary. ZHTL; SO v2 #50; (1st app. Flash v1 #86 <8.47>).
  Wes (Sandman) Dodds accidently converts his sidekick Sandy Hawkins into a sand monster with an experimental “silicoid gun.” Placing Sandy in suspended animation (see 1996/Yr8), he retires from crimefighting and devotes himself to seeking a cure. JSASF #1 [provides date], JSA v3 #70 <4.05> [incorrectly says “1945”]; (reaffirming JLofA v1 #113 <9-10.74>).
  Ted (Wildcat) Grant fathers a son, Jake—but the child is kidnapped by his enemy, the Yellow Wasp. SO v2 #50, JSASF #1 [gives date]. (Yellow Wasp 1st app. Sensation #20 <8.43>). He is eventually captured: Starman v2 #41 <4.98>.
  [Jun 20] The Vigilante finally gains his vengeance in a one-on-one confrontation with Bugsy Siegel. Vigilante: CL,PJ #4 <2.96>. Date of Siegel’s death from historical record.
  Teenage Molly Mayne first confronts Green Lantern as the original Harlequin. SO v2 #22; (1st app. All-American #89 <9.47>).
  Green Lantern confronts Knodar, the “last criminal,” from the 25th century. Batman & Superman: World’s Finest #2 <5.99> confirms Knodar’s existence; (orig. GL v1 #28 <10.47>).
  Rose Canton’s alternate personality, the golden age villainess Thorn, makes her debut. IInc. v1 #33 <12.86> (referencing IInc. v1 #6-8 <8-9.84> and Annual #1 <85>), JLA:Y1 #2 <2.98>; (1st app. Flash v1 #89 <11.47>).
  The Blackhawks, now running an air cargo service out of Singapore, are recruited by the newly-formed CIA and relocated to Washington, DC. Action Comics Weekly #601-634 <1988>. The Central Intelligence Agency was chartered by an Act of Congress on July 26, 1947.
  [Oct 25] Black Canary helps save the JSA from “History’s Crime Wave.” Starman Annual #2 <97>; (confirming A-SC #38 <12-1.48>; date in story).
  [Nov] Vandal Savage joins Per Degaton, Brain Wave, the Gambler, the Thinker, and the Wizard to form the original Injustice Society of the World. IInc Annual #2, JSASF #1, DCVSF #1, JSAC #10 [gives month]; (affirming A-SC #37 <10-11.47>). However, the JSASF timeline erroneously places this in 1944, and the DCVSF timeline (by the same author!) smushes this membership into the Injustice Gang (see 1948) and places it in 1940! The most recent date, from JSAC, rather awkwardly places it after the subsequent issue [see above]. (Thinker 1st app. All-Flash #12 <Aut.43>, Wizard 1st app. A-SC #34 <4-5.47>.)
  The JSA again confronts Vandal Savage. Damage #12, date approximate [an unchronicled case, implied in flashback, including Black Canary—and Hourman (!)].
  The Flash encounters the golden age Star Sapphire, a sorceress from the “7th dimension.” Brave & Bold v3 #6 <3.00>; (orig. All-Flash #32 <12-1.48>).
  The House Un-American Activities Committee begins an aggressive hunt for “Communist subversion,” with results that include the Hollywood Blacklist. Historical record, provided for context.
  Time-traveler Walker (Chronos) Gabriel rescues his father from Arkham Asylum. Chronos #11 <2.99>
  The Flash battles the atomic villain Atom-Smasher (Manfred Mota), witnessed by the time-travelling John Fox (see 27th Century). Flash Special #1 <90>, Flash v3 #3 <10.06>. Exact date uncertain.
  The Flash helps Quicksilver (now calling himself Max Mercury) defeat the Screaming Skull, and is “the last hero to see Max alive for years to come.” Flash SF #1. Described as 1947 in the issue’s timeline, but 1949 in its “lost pages” story. The earlier date seems more consistent with other known events.
  The JSA (including Miss America, and with an assist from Black Canary) battles Lorelei and the “Invasion from Fairyland.” IInc. v1 #50 <5.88>; (retelling A-SC #39 <2-3.48>). This was Johnny Thunder’s last Golden Age appearance.
  Max Mercury leaps into the future once again (see 1957), leaving behind a baby daughter. Impulse #16 <8.96>, Flash SF #1.
  [Mar] On a series of missions in Italy and China, the Blackhawks mourn the loss of Hendrickson but gain a new member, Grover Baines.
Blackhawk v3 #1-3<3-5.89>, -Annual #1 <89>.
  Merry Pemberton, sister of the Star-Spangled Kid, begins adventuring as the “Gimmick Girl.” SO v2 #9, Young Justice SF #1 <1.99>, YJ #16 <1.00>, etc.; (1st app. Star-Spangled #81 <6.48>.)
  The Wizard recruits the Fiddler, Harlequin, Huntress, Icicle, and Sportsmaster to join forces as the second Injustice Society (colloquially aka the Injustice Gang) and take control of the JSA. Harlequin switches sides to help Black Canary defeat the villains and free the JSA, and Dinah is officially inducted into the team. GL Corps Quarterly #3 <Win.93>, JSASF #1, DCVSF #1; (affirming A-SC #41 <6-7.48>). Another tale that’s historically indispensable, but nevertheless mangled by the “Secret Files” timelines; the group does not form in 1940 or ’44. (Huntress 1st app. Sensation #68 <8.47>, but see Tigress, 1942; Icicle 1st app. All-American #90 <10.47>.)
  Jay (Flash) Garrick marries his sweetheart Joan Williams, and they honeymoon in Las Vegas—undeterred by the schemes of Shade, the Fiddler, and the Thinker, or by his buddies from the JSA. Flash v2 #134 <2.98>, #161 <6.00>. Issue #134 marks Jay and Joan’s 50th anniversary [as published in 1998, though now set in 2003/Yr15, thus presumably his 55th], although in #161 Jay recalls (apparently wrongly) that “it must’ve been early ’47.”
  Jonathan Kent (see 1946) courts and ultimately weds his childhood sweetheart, Martha Clark, after she is widowed.

Adv. Supes #430 <7.87>, World of Smallville #2 <5.88>. The first source cited includes the Kents’ 49th wedding anniversary, and given the context from the second source I’ve elected to treat the implicit wedding date as a real-time reference rather than sliding it forward. As already noted, this has implications for Jonathan and Martha’s age that are growing more awkward with time, but the story has never actually been superseded or disavowed.

  [Jun] The Blackhawks are (again) charged with Communist sympathies; the CIA abducts them and installs more-cooperative doubles. Blackhawk v3 #4-8<6-11.89>
  J. Edgar Hoover convinces the Flash to work with the FBI against domestic Communism—until Flash discovers that the Bureau considers even his alter-ego Jay Garrick and his good friend Elliot Shapiro to be “potential subversives.” Flash Special #1
  [July 16] The mayor of Gotham City is murdered, the first of five grisly killings that taunt Green Lantern throughout the remainder of the year. ’Tec #784 <9.03>. Date from a newspaper clipping shown in the issue. These “Made of Wood” crimes remain unsolved until 2007/Yr19.
  [Late Oct] The Seven Soldiers of Victory are set up for a losing battle with the Nebula Man by the duplicitous Spider, who kills Vigilante’s old partner Billy Gunn. Wing gives his life to defeat the Nebula Man, and the surviving Soldiers are scattered throughout time (see 14,000 BCE, 16th Century BCE, 12th C. BCE, 13th C., 15th C., and 1860s). JLASF #1 <9.97> [confirming later rescue; see 1995/Yr7], S&S #9 (retelling JLofA v1 #100-102 <8-10.72>) [gives date]. Pat Dugan in the latter source recalls this being “right after Sylvester’s 19th birthday,” thus contradicting previous accounts [i.e., IInc. v1 #50] which suggested, somewhat more plausibly, that he was born in 1927.
  Diana Rockwell Trevor (mother of Steve Trevor) crashes her plane near Themyscira, where she gives her life aiding the Amazons against Cottus, the monster imprisoned beneath the island. WW v2 #12 <1.88>. Date provided in story. Fan speculation: Hippolyta was not present to help her sister Amazons (and risk changing history!) because she was time-travelling on the SSOV case [above], as glimpsed in S&S #9.
  The JSA tackles “The Case of the Cosmic Criminals,” and relocates its headquarters to Civic City, where it remains until the team disbands. (A-SC #45 <2-3.49>); pre-Crisis, but arguably relevant due to the headquarters move. Pre-Crisis, the only earlier HQ was established to have been in Gotham, but in current continuity the team seems to have relocated more often [see 1942, 1943, 1947].
  The JSA confronts a revived Injustice Gang, aided by Starman, Dr. Fate and other former members/allies. Starman v2 #62 <2.00>, date approximate [scenes from unchronicled case(s); no details given].
  Teenager Sally Smart is gifted with a magic whistle that grants her powers—and stops her aging. SS: Bulleteer #4 <5.06>. Date approximate; Sally says she is “75” in 2008/Yr20 [SS: Zatanna #1 <6.05>].
  Ted (Starman) Knight tries to analyze the Spectre’s ectoplasm—but succeeds only in annoying him. Fate #22 <9.96>. Note that the Spectre is not yet trapped in Jim Corrigan’s body: see 1953.
  The Harlequin, working undercover, confronts Green Lantern one final time about her feelings for him, then disappears from his life for decades. (See 1999/Yr11.) GL 80-Pg. Giant #1 <12.98>
  Guiseppe Bertinelli (see 1920) dies, and his son Alfredo becomes capo of Gotham’s “Five Families.” Batman/Huntress: Cry for Blood #1 <6.00>
  [Feb] Blackhawk rescues his teammates from government suspended animation. After an escapade in southeast Asia, Blackhawk Airways severs all ties with the CIA and the U.S. government, making them free agents once again. Blackhawk #9-16 <12.89-8.90>; date given in story. Former Air Force Intelligence officer Paco Hererra joins the squad at this point.
  The JSA (including Miss America) confronts a “circus crime wave.” IInc. v1 #49 <4.88> (revising A-SC #54 <8-9.50>).
  Dan (Manhunter) Richards hangs up his costume. SO v2 #22
  The Ray, angered by unsavory truths behind his origin, quits the Freedom Fighters. Ray mini-series #5 <6.92>
  [Jun 25] The Korean War begins; the U.S. quickly becomes involved. It lasts until an armistice is signed on July 27, 1953. In the DCU, Jonathan Kent and Slade Wilson are known to have fought in Korea. Historical record. Re: Kent: Adventures of Superman #500 <6.93>; re: Wilson, WWho v2, (New Teen Titans #44 <7.84>). Wilson (the future Terminator) lied about his age to join the Army at 16, and became the war’s youngest decorated hero. Exact dates of service for both remain unknown.
  Sen. Joseph McCarthy escalates the government’s Communist “witch hunt” (see 1947), spreading unfounded charges against respected officials. Historical record; provided for context.
  The JSA travels to the 31st Century to defeat invading shape-changing “chameleons.” (A-SC #56 <12-1.51>). Pre-Crisis, and possibly apocryphal, but it sounds interesting (esp. considering possible connotations re: Durla). :-)
  Wonder Woman finally defeats her nemesis Dark Angel with the aid of Johnny Thunder’s T-Bolt, then returns to her original time period (see 2003/Yr15). Adventure 80-Pg Giant #1 <10.98>; WW #134 <6.98>. Exact date (other than the year) indeterminate.
  In one of its last major cases, the full Justice Society faces Vandal Savage, Solomon Grundy, and the electric-powered Living Constellations. JSA v1 mini-series #1-8 <4-11.91>. Exact date indeterminate, but it apparently follows Hippolyta’s departure. Starman improves his Cosmic Rod in this tale, and decides (with inauspicious timing) to return to active duty with the JSA. Issue #2 reveals that Alan Scott has become VP/General Manager of Gotham Broadcasting Co.
  [Jan 1] Ted Knight’s girlfriend Doris Lee dies in an unsolved murder. His mental instability (see 1946) renewed by the grief, Ted leaves Opal City hoping to restore himself. Starman SF #1 [among other references], Starman v2 #77 <5.01> [placing Doris’ murder “earlier this year”]. Exact date derived from the “year and a day” tenure of Starman II [see below, and 1952].
  [Jan 1] Dr. Charles McNider takes Ted’s place as a mysterious new Starman, sidelining his Dr. Mid-Nite identity and taking up residence in Opal City. Starman v2 #77. McNider has technological help from Robotman and the Red Torpedo—in the first canonical appearance of the latter subsequent to Pearl Harbor!
  The Spectre visits Alice Holland, the pregnant mother-to-be of the ill-fated Alec Holland (see 1982). Swamp Thing v2 #147 <10.94>; date given in story. Both sets Holland’s birth year, and confirms the Spectre’s continued activity [see 1953].
  Paran Katar reveals his true background to Carter and Shiera Hall, gives them teleportation technology, and returns to Thanagar, where he founds the Wingmen. Hawkworld #21 <3.92>
  Jake “Bobo” Benetti, granted super-powers by an injury in Korea, becomes a criminal in Opal City, and encounters the new Starman. Starman 80-Pg Giant #1 <1.99>
  Seven precocious adolescents join together as the “Newsboy Army.” SS: Guardian #4 <11.05>. Date approximate (the founding scene shows U.N. headquarters in the background, which didn’t open until Jan 9, 1951). Note that this group is not connected to the earlier Newsboy Legion.
  The Unknown Soldier works covertly in North Korea. Unknown Soldier v2 #9 <9.89>
  [Oct 13] Pressed by a Congressional Committee to reveal their identities, the JSA members disband the group and retire. Almost all other still-active costumed heroes follow suit. The closing membership consists of the Atom, Black Canary, Doctor Mid-Nite, the Flash, Green Lantern, and the ever-stalwart Hawkman. ZHTL; SO v2 #14 [misprinted here and occasionally elsewhere as 1952]; JSA v3 #68 <2.05> [establishes date]; (orig. Adv. #466 <11-12.79>). Accounts differ on whether this was HUAC or a Senate committee. JSA #68 shows Hippolyta present, despite her apparent departure the previous year, and also shows Degaton playing a covert role in the hearings. The Master Gardener of Mars also claims to have influenced these events [Martian Manhunter: American Secrets mini-series #1-3 <10-12.92>]; Vandal Savage likewise claims to have had a hand in behind the scenes [JLA:Y1 #2 <2.98>]. The team’s last Golden Age appearance was in (A-SC #57 <2-3.51>). Per SO v2 #14, “the JSA was not to be seen againpublicly for a decade”; see 1961.
  In the JSA’s wake, President Truman creates the covert Task Force X, which includes the domestic group Argent and a revived, international Suicide Squad. SO v2 #14. The Squad is headed by Rick Flag, Sr. [see 1942, 1961]. Argent is headed by Control, formerly of the OSS [see 1941]. Argent at some point fights the Sportsmaster, as depicted in one panel.
  [Oct 28-30] Per Degaton plots to change the timeline—permanently discrediting the JSA and, thus, all future masked heroes—by assassinating President Truman and framing the JSAers for the crime. A group of second-generation JSAers from the future (aided by Rip Hunter) helps defeat the scheme. JSA v3 #68-72 <2-6.05>; dates given in story. The version of Rip Hunter seen here is middle-aged, already experienced with the Linear Men, but not yet cybernetic. Ted Knight is shown to be under psychiatric care at this time. Hunter says these events will fade from the 1951 JSAers’ minds after the fact.
  Jay Garrick retires as Flash. The “heroic” archer called the Spider (see 1940, 1948) takes his place in Keystone City, until the Shade discovers him to be secretly a criminal, and kills him when he threatens Jay and Joan. Shade mini-series #3 <6.97>
  Captain Comet (Adam Blake) debuts, a mutant with physical and mental skills evolved 100,000 years beyond ordinary humanity. ZHTL* [“30 Years Ago”]; SO Annual #1 <87>, WWho v2; (1st app. Strange Adventures v1 #9-10 <6-7.51>). This had always been set in 1951 until ZH implied otherwise, and as with J’onn J’onzz [see 1955] and others, the change seems entirely arbitrary. There’s no compelling reason to overturn it… but on the other hand, it seems to make more sense to reconcile the unelaborated ZHTL reference by interpreting it as marking the Captain’s departure from Earth [see 1972], rather than his debut.
  [Nov] David Knight appears from the future, and assumes Charles McNider’s role as Starman II. Starman v2 #77. David is transported here from the moment of his death [see 2002/Yr14], via the magics of Kent Nelson.
  [Dec 30-31] Jack Knight arrives from the future and encounters his brother David (and their father); he helps David and Hourman to defuse a drug theft scheme engineered by the Mist. Starman v2 #77-79 <5-7.01>. David notes Starman II has “three days left” (although oddly, this places the story’s film premiere on New Year’s Eve, a Monday in 1951). Ted Knight is back in Opal at this point, but not fully recovered from his breakdown.

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This page last updated 07/14/2009.